KEYWORDS: year, world, problem, food, power, bug

Y2K Calamities?

Karen Zerby

The millennium bug and how to prepare!

By MariaMaria #472 CM/FM 3227 1/99

Dear Family,

1. God bless you! It's 1999, and what a wonderful year it promises to be for the Family! As you read in Peter's "Year-end Review of 1998" (ML #3224, GN 828), we made tremendous progress in reaching the world for Jesus in 1998 and are expecting even more this year.

2. The world, however, has entered 1999 with some trepidation‚ for there's now less than a year until the new millennium dawns in the year 2000. While many Christians will then celebrate the two-thousandth anniversary of the birth of Jesus, there's another birth which will take place at midnight on December 31, 1999—the millennium bug, also known as the year 2000 problem or simply Y2K. In fact, some of the birth pangs have already been felt around the world and have generated a lot of news and attention from the media.

3. In this GN we'll examine what the millennium bug is‚ how it could affect the world and us, and what you can do to prepare for it. Much of the information which follows is compiled from news articles we've gathered over the last several months, but we'll also share some insights from our dear Lover and Savior into these coming events.

What Is The Year 2000 Problem?

4. First of all, what is the year 2000 problem and why is it a problem, anyway?

5. The year 2000 bug arose from the fact that most old mainframe computers still running keep track only of the last two digits of the year. The com­puter assumes the first two digits are 1 and 9. To the computer‚ 1999 is just 99. That means the computer will interpret 00 not as 2000 but as 1900, throwing the date calculation off by 100 years.

6. The problem dates to the 1960s and 1970s, when computer memory was scarce and expensive. Computers filled entire rooms and cost millions back then, so smart programmers squeezed every last bit of memory from the systems. They didn't foresee all the problems that only using two digits for the date would cause in the future.

7. Programmers who built the old mainframe computers didn't anticipate the problem because they never thought these machines would last 20 years. But today, these mammoth computers are still running great portions of society.

8. Because the two-digit method for dates became standard for computers, the bug also exists in the software of many personal com­puters made before 1997, and in the computer chips embedded in many products, ranging from auto­matic coffee makers to nuclear power plants.

9. To fix the problem‚ every computer system's software must be checked and tested. Multiply this by the millions of computers around the world and the hundreds of billions of lines of computer code‚ and you can see how immense the project is.

10. In the United States, there are about 157 billion software functions that need to be checked, according to Capers Jones of Software Productivity Research. The 30 most significant industrialized countries have a total of 700 billion vulnerable software functions. Every one of them must be checked, Jones said, and estimated the global bill at around $3.6 trillion.

11. And it's not just software in large organizations. Billions of microchips have built-in date functions. The chips can be found in chemical and steel plants, food and drug processing, aircraft, oilrigs‚ health care equipment, communications systems, elevators and security systems.

12. Many of these chips may fail when 1–1-00 rolls around, so critical chips need to be located, tested and physically replaced if necess­ary. "The costs of fixing the year 2000 problem appear to constitute the most expensive business problem in human history," Jones said. (Chris Allbritton, AP, 19/8/98).

The Year 2000 computer problem
in perspective

EventEstimated Cost

World War II$4200 billion

Millennium bug (Y2K)$600 billion

Vietnam conflict$500 billion

Kobe earthquake$100 billion

Los Angeles earthquake$60 billion

Sources: Gartner Group and

Congressional Research Service

Be Prepared for Anything!

13. (Mama:) There's a lot of debate as to exactly how great a problem Y2K will be. Predictions range from a minor technical glitch that may be fixed within the next 11 months to what some are even calling the breakdown of modern civilization. When we asked the Lord what could happen, He gave us a number of possibilities, along with a sober warning to be prepared.

14. (Jesus speaking: ) I hear in the wind the voices of them that say, "Things continue as they were; things will continue as they are." Many of My children have latched on to this way of thinking—this lackadaisical, lazy, laid-back attitude—especially about the future, End­time prophecy, Biblical predictions about the time you are living in, the Time of the End.

15. How I would stir them up and open their eyes to what's happening round about them, but some will not see. I've shown many signs of the End—wars‚ economic crashes, famines, diseases, natural disasters—but some still do not take notice. Some still do not realize that what I have said will come, will come. They do not under­stand the shortness of time, the inevitability of how things could change in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye.

16. The day and hour of this major calamity in human history—this time when the world dictator will arise to save the world and claim his throne‚ the one who is possessed by the Enemy, Satan incarnate—will not be known before the time appointed. But though I do not give the exact date, I prepare you as best I can. I show signs in the sun, the moon, and the stars. I show signs in the seas and on the Earth and within humanity, with men's hearts failing them for fear because of those things which are soon to come to pass. I send plagues and pestilences such as have not been seen before, and great earthquakes and disasters with a frequency unheard of in the past. I give messages about the future and world events, and send forth others of My spirit messengers to speak the same.

17. But still some will not be prepared; some will not believe. Some of My Own children do not realize the seriousness of what will happen to their life once these calamities are come. Sad to say, some who are not wise will not understand fully until all of these things come to pass—until the son of perdition be revealed in the flesh‚ till his power is made known, till the details of Biblical prophecy come to pass.

18. I cannot reveal to you, My children, the precise timetable of the events to come, although I have given you the general outline in My Word already. As one who lives by a train track knows that there will be a certain number of trains in a day and may have a general idea of their destinations, so do you. You who live by the train track in this Last Day know that there will a train passing which signifies the confirming of the Covenant. You know that midway through the day there will be another train, equally momentous, which signifies the breaking of the Covenant and the full revelation of the Antichrist to the world‚ and the beginning of a time of trouble such as was not since the beginning of the world. And you know that there will be an evening train signifying the time in which I return to gather My children unto Me, bringing the light of a new day in the midst of the darkest night.

19. You know of the existence of these trains. They are on the timetable which you have been given. But the precise times have not been filled in yet. I will reveal more of the details, more of the schedule, to you as the trains draw closer, so that you may be prepared for their passing. I reveal deep secrets unto My servants the prophets, but I do not do so now, at this moment. For now, the hidden things belong to God.

20. Though I have My plan, and things will happen as I have said they will‚ even the Enemy has a degree of choice with which to make his plans. So he is setting the stage‚ and if the conditions are right, if the world is in enough chaos, if things get bad enough that they need a savior, then he will arise. He is behind the scenes, creating confusion, so that he will be able to step forth and assume power‚ to save the world for a time. Even this is within My will, for he but sets the stage for My return, as I foretold in My Word.

21. The Devil has a measure of choice, with­in certain bounds‚ much like the illustration your Father David gave of the tunnel of My will. There is a set time period for the End, and it will come within the time that I have determined and set. For I have set these times, and no man nor spirit may gainsay or change these things. But within this time frame, within this tunnel, the Evil One is permitted a certain amount of leeway, for I have allowed him this choice. He has the power of choice, even as you have the power of choice.

22. He may choose to work his evil works now, or may withhold a little, until later‚ just as you may move from one side to the other within the tunnel of My will. The Enemy of your souls has much less choice than you do, however, for I have set much greater bounds upon him. He may only move slightly from one way to the other. He cannot turn around and escape My will and that which I have planned and predicted in My Word. That which is to be shall be, whether it be soon or a little less soon. In either case, the time is nigh.

23. I have set the boundaries of the Endtime—the last seven years, the two three-and-a-half-year periods‚ and have numbered the days within them. I have also set them within the general boundaries of time itself, and they will occur within that time frame, whether they be soon or they be delayed a little. But I give the Evil One a certain amount of leeway in when he may begin this period.

24. He knows that once these days are begun, then the day of his end is determined, the day of My return is determined, and his choice has ended. So he seeks to maximize his chance to defeat My plan by beginning it at the time when he imagines it will be most opportune for him.

25. I allow this to show both him and the world that My plan will not be defeated. Though the Enemy goes to great lengths to defeat Me in these days, I will not be defeated‚ nor will My plan be altered. As always, he but accomplishes My will in creating the conditions for My return. He stirs up trouble which drives My children ever closer to Me, and also works in the hearts of the unbelievers to cause them to want to seek Me, to find Me as their refuge from the storm. And in the latter part of his reign on Earth, when he declares himself god, he forces all men to make a decision. Will they reject him and receive Me, or receive him and reject Me? In all these things he but does My will, and as you would say on Earth, he cannot win for losing.

26. I have held back the forces of evil in times past. There have been calamities in the past that could have precipitated a major disaster if the wrong strings had been pulled‚ and if those behind the scenes had chosen to do so. But above all, I am in control, and I have stemmed the tide of wickedness so that My children in the Family might have the chance to reach some of My other children in the world that have never heard about Me before.

27. I have allowed you to reach the vast country of Russia. I have made it possible for the Family to make their way into China. I have recently opened the doors to the vast continent of Africa. My Gospel is being preached in places that have been parched and dry, thirsting after My truth. This is a sign of the End.

28. Upon the horizon is yet another poss­ible calamity that could precipitate worldwide con­fusion. The year 2000 bug is yet another opportunity where Satan could step in and proclaim himself as God—and if he chooses to do so, let it be, for then sooner will the End come; sooner will I be able to cleanse the world of all wickedness and reclaim My throne, My rightful place in the hearts and minds of men; sooner will you all be gathered unto Me, and sooner will love and peace again fill the Earth.

29. Those behind the scenes could pull the strings. They could magnify the disaster to horrific proportions and then herald in the Beast who will save the world with his knowledge, solutions, wisdom, and economic and social ­order. Those behind the scenes also have the power to prevent full-blown chaos if Satan is not ready to enter center stage. If this [Y2K] presents an opportunity for him to arise, then My will will be done, for then will I be able to complete My plan after his designated time of ruthless tribulation.

30. Fret not that the choice which the Evil One has will hinder the preaching of My Gospel and the distribution of My Word. Though he come sooner or a little bit later, My Word shall be preached exactly as much as I wish it to be. If you should hold your silence or be silenced, others would cry forth My message, or the very rocks themselves would cry out My coming!

31. The ability to stop the preaching of My Gospel is not in the Enemy's hands. If the Antichrist should come sooner, I will do even greater miracles to spread My Word abroad in the hearts and minds of men. The Gospel shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations, and then shall the End come. This is My Word, which shall not fail. Heaven and Earth may pass away, but My Word will not pass away, and not one jot nor tittle shall fail to be fulfilled.

32. Here is wisdom. Let him that hath under­standing heed these words: I cannot tell you the very hour or the very day. These things must remain hidden for now. But I'm doing all that I can to prepare you in spirit through the massive outpouring of My Word in all forms—especially through My instruction and admonitions to receive the gift of prophecy, to practice it and use it. I've been preparing you for years through the battles that I have brought you through, through your strengthening of spirit.

33. Be prepared, for you know not what hour the Antichrist will come and when he shall rise to power. Sudden shall be his appearance on the world scene. He will slip quietly in the door to world power like a thief in the night. How foolish you would be to not prepare both physically and spiritually for the future events that may come unexpectedly. Please be wise and heed My Words of caution, of wisdom, and of truth that will help you to make it.

34. I've shared much about the need for you to be spiritually prepared, and now I speak to you of the physical and what you must do to prepare‚ and prepare now. In the advent of a major calamity—for it will come soon—you must be prepared. You must have your survival food prepared. You must have survival water, and even possibly a generator, as you may be without electricity for some time.

35. Every individual Home must also come before Me for their personal situation. They may need to prepare their closest friends and contacts for future confusion—not to make them fearful, not to say when or how, but to help them be prepared. Some may need to make sure that their house is in order. I will give individual counsel to each Home for their specific needs. For every country and every Home will have different needs, and I will require different forms of preparation.

36. I'm not telling you these things to frighten you or cause you to worry or be fearful. I'm simply sharing a glimpse of the future with you—the possibility of a major worldwide calamity as a result of the Y2K bug, that you may be prepared. You are My Bride whom I love dearly, and I care for you and want to give you as much warning about the future as I can. So I say unto you: Be prepared! (End of message from Jesus)

What Could Happen

As a Result of Y2K?

37. (Mama:) Lord help us to be both physically and spiritually prepared for whatever may come! Like the Lord said‚ things could change in the twinkling of an eye. But if we go to Him, both individually and as a Home, He'll show each of us exactly how to prepare and what we need to do. He emphasized that we didn't need to worry or fear, even though some chaos and confusion may well crop up.

38. In this next section of news articles we'll examine some problems you may need to be prepared to face—first an overview of what could happen, followed by a specific look at some of the major problems.

An overview: "Panic in the Year Zero"

Compiled from a series of articles

by Joseph Farah‚ WorldNetDaily

39. I have resisted writing about the possi­bilities of a massive computer calamity associated with the year 2000 for good reason. I freely admit I simply don't know how serious the problems are. Nevertheless, it is becoming increasingly clear that the potential exists for unpre­cedented economic, political and social upheaval due to the Y2K bug. I have been unable to find any respon­sible, informed expert who will state with assurance that the threat has been grossly exaggerated and that there is no cause for alarm.

40. "A global financial crash, nuclear meltdowns, hospital life-support system shutdowns, a collapse of the air-traffic system are possible without proper attention now‚" explained a sober­ing New York Times story more than a year ago.

41. Last summer, Newsweek carried a cover story titled, "The Day the World Shut Down: Can We Fix the 2000 Computer Bug Before It's Too Late?" "Drink deep from your champagne glass as the ball drops in Times Square to usher in the year 2000," the story read. "Whether you imbibe or not, the hangover may begin immediately. The power may go out. Or the credit card you pull out to pay for dinner may no longer be valid. If you try an ATM for cash‚ that may not work, either. Or the elevator that you took up to the party ballroom may be stuck on the ground floor. Or the parking garage you drove into earlier in the evening may charge you more than your yearly salary. Or your car may not start. Or the traffic lights might be on the blink. Or, when you get home, the phones may not work. The mail may show up, but your government check may not arrive, and your insurance policies may have expired."

42. Donald McAlvany, a financial news­letter writer, argues that "the year 2000 represents the meltdown of our high-tech computerized economies, [throwing] our entire high–tech civilization into total chaos and gridlock." And Michael S. Hyatt, author of The Millennium Bug, predicts that "it is going to be a billion times worse than the worst microcomputer crash you have ever experienced—or could ever imagine."

43. It's not an overstatement to suggest that modern civilization, as we know it, will cease to exist—at least temporarily. Power grids, running water, telephone service, all the necessities and conveniences of modern life may suddenly be rendered undependable, if not useless.

44. The man regarded as the most knowl­edge­­able person in the U.S. Senate on the impact of the Y2K millennium bug says people should begin stock­piling food‚ water, prepare for major crises in the health-care and banking systems as well as civil unrest triggered by the government's failure to send out welfare checks.

45. "Pay attention to the things that are vulnerable in your life and make contingency plans‚" says Sen. Robert Bennett, chairman of the Special Committee on the Year 2000 Technology Problem. But don't panic, he adds.

46. What do you suppose will happen? Just imagine what every major city in America will be like the first time welfare checks don't arrive. Imagine inner-city hospitals turning away people by the hundreds‚ banks locking their doors, ATM machines inoperative, automobiles not starting‚ no heat on cold wintry nights, barren supermarket shelves and potable water scarce. Add to that recipe sporadic power failures, telephone service disruptions and shutdowns of major airline flights.

47. Remember Los Angeles after the Rodney King police beating trial? Kids' stuff. Picture scenes like that repeated in dozens of urban areas throughout the country. Who ya gonna call? Don't bother dialing 911 when the angry mobs head for your door. It won't be working.

48. So where does that leave us? Oh, don't worry. The government has a Plan B. Presidential Decision Directive 63‚ issued by Bill Clinton in May, calls for the development of a plan to ensure "essential national security missions" as well as general public health and safety by, you guessed it, the year 2000.

49. The carefully worded directive emphasizes the preservation of order and the mainten­ance of a "national infrastructure protection system" involving the military, intelligence agencies‚ law enforcement and the mandatory participation of the "private sector."

50. Under the directive, the "National Infra­structure Protection Center"—which includes the FBI, the Secret Service, other federal law enforcement agencies, the Department of Defense and the intelligence agencies—calls the shots. To me‚ all this sounds like code for martial law.

51. I recently watched one of those old movies called "Panic in the Year Zero," starring and directed by Ray Milland. While computers weren't a part of everyday life in America when the film was made, it focuses on a more familiar threat—nuclear war and its devastating aftermath.

52. In that film, society is so wracked by disaster that the decision is made to reset the global calendar, as families, communities and nations begin putting the pieces back together.

53. Could this be the way freedom is extinguished in America and throughout the world—not with a bang of a nuclear blast, but with the tick of a clock? I don't pretend to know the ­answer to that question. But it's certainly a possi­bility worth considering, praying about and planning for by every freedom–loving person in the world.

Summary of specific problems
that could arise

54. Food shortages: Geri Guidetti is a biologist who moderates an Internet forum on Y2K and agriculture. "The writing is on the wall: it is not only possible, but probable that there are going to be food shortages," she says.

55. That's because modern agriculture and food production have grown heavily dependent on technology. And computers and automated systems are at risk of getting bit by the millennium bug. In addition, agriculture relies on a variety of other industries to put the food on your table.

56. "It's a global chain," says Guidetti. "We don't realize how much food comes from outside the U.S." Which highlights the fact that America [or any country] is vulnerable to failures in countries which are well behind the U.S. in their efforts to fix their Y2K problems. Even the seeds are susceptible to Y2K. Most are hybrid, manufactured by seed companies.

57. "So if you're not able to grow the food because of a glitch anywhere in the process or because you're not able to deliver the seed ­after it is produced—if you have a glitch anywhere in that line—that seed is in jeopardy‚ your future food is in jeopardy," says Guidetti.

58. And what if there were other problems? Once the grain is harvested or the cows are milked, the raw produce must be shipped out for processing. And most experts pinpoint transportation as the weakest link in the chain.

59. "The railway systems, the trucking industry, if they depend upon oil and gas, is that in good supply? Have the oil companies been able to fix it?" asks Peter de Jager‚ another Y2K expert.

60. And the factories for processing the food have potential problems of their own. "Computers play an extremely important role in the production of food from factories—many of which are automated—down to the distribution of products," says William James of Grocery Manufacturers of America.

61. Once food is processed‚ it is shipped to warehouses. Inventories, temperature controls, and shipping orders are often controlled by computer. And then the food is again shipped by the highly-vulnerable transportation system to your local grocery store.

62. "Most consumers don't really look at the supermarket as a high–tech environment and they probably would be surprised as to how much technology and how much data-gathering goes into making the store operate the way it does," says Michael Sansolo of the Food Mar­ket­ing Institute. (David Snyder, CBN, 12/11/98).

63. Chaos and accidents: At best, we can expect isolated equipment failures—traffic lights mal­functioning or short–term local power black­outs, for example. But wholesale breakdowns could well occur: longer electrical, gas and ­water supply cutoffs, telephone systems inoperative, fuel and heating oil shortages, failed rail and trucking networks, making it impossible for super­markets to restock their shelves. (Neal R. Pierce, Washington Post, 4/11/98).

64. Even little problems can be serious on a large scale. Vice Adm. Arthur Cebrowski‚ the Navy's director of space, information warfare, command and control, said only a 1 percent failure rate in computers at civilian agencies would result in 43,000 faulty medical prescriptions‚ 27,000 lost Medicare claims‚ $16 million unrecorded credit card transactions and 6 million pieces of lost mail. (Gregory Slabodkin, GCN, 15/6/98).

65. Accidents could also easily happen. For example, when the Phillips Petroleum Co. ran a simulation onboard an oil vessel in the North Sea, a safety system designed to detect a deadly gas, hydrogen sulfide, shut down (Fred Kaplan, Boston Globe, 21/6/98). Chemical plants could be affected as well. It only took one faulty valve to cause the catastrophe in Bhopal‚ India.

66. Nuclear power plants are a major concern. Western intelligence sources say some of the 65 Soviet-made civilian nuclear power plants scattered across the former Warsaw Pact countries could malfunction as their computers fall victim to the Y2K glitch. Anxieties about Russian nuclear safety, branded on global memory by the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, have not been diminished by Moscow's assurances that the problem is "under control." An intelligence source said: "Russia's nuclear industry is in desperate straits. Throw in Y2K and you could have a ­giant Chernobyl on your hands." (Matthew Campbell, The Sunday Times, 12/4/98).

67. Electricity and water: "Most of the nation's power systems must be Y2K compliant [checked for potential Y2K problems and prepared for the change-over], or they all go down‚ region by region, in one gigantic, rolling blackout‚" warns historian Gary North.

68. The North American grid is vulnerable to simultaneous failures. Generating facilities in the US, Canada, and Mexico jointly move power through high-tension lines that distribute electricity through four regional interconnectors. Within each region, if one facility goes off line, the others compensate to pick up the slack. But there's not much spare capacity built into the system; the North American Electric Reliability Council, a group that is drawing up a timetable of Y2K fixes for the Department of Energy‚ admits that if multiple generating facilities fail in one region, this "may result in stressing the electric system to the point of a cascading outage over a large area." (Charles Platt, Wired, 8/98).

69. "If the power grid goes down, then it is all over. It doesn't matter if every computer in the country is Y2K compliant if you can't plug it into something. So we are focusing first and foremost on utilities and not just power. The water treatment system in every municipality in this country is computer driven and has the potential of being upset because of embedded chips and bad software. Utilities, therefore, are at the top of the list of the things we are addressing in our committee."—Sen. Robert Bennett, chairman of the Special Senate Committee on the Year 2000 Technology Problem, June 12, 1998.

70. Bennett is worried because even 100 percent compliance by all of these facilities—a goal not even deemed possible at this late date—would not ensure the uninterrupted flow of power to U.S. consumers be­gin­ning January 1, 2000. Power utilities‚ for instance, rely on foreign oil production and transportation. But if the pump­ing, navigation and propulsion systems of those foreign companies are not Y2K compliant, then U.S. utilities won't have the oil they need to generate electricity. This is known, in Y2K jargon, as "the ripple ­effect." ­(Joseph Farah, WorldNetDaily, 17/9/98).

71. Fear: Fear of an impending Y2K "crisis" could prove to be a greater threat to our economic well-being and liberties than the Y2K bug itself. According to a poll released in June at the World Congress on Information Technology at George Mason University, approximately one out of every four U.S. citizens anticipates being directly affected by the millennium bug. This concern could potentially reach the level of widespread panic, culminating in bank runs, stock market volatility, and civil unrest. (Dennis Behreandt, The New American, Vol.14, No.19, 14/9/98).

72. The U.S. Federal Reserve is printing an extra $50 to $70 billion worth of bank notes as a precautionary measure. The central banks of Australia and New Zealand have taken similar steps. Sen. Robert Bennett, who also serves on the Senate Banking Committee‚ said that without such actions if even a fraction of Americans took $500 out of their credit unions, the result would be "a shortfall of credit unions overall of $16 billion." (Declan McCullagh, Wired, 6/12/98).

73. Recession: Because Y2K is an inter­national problem, global recession is an imminent possibility. Edward Yardeni‚ the chief economist of Deutsche Morgan Grenfell, believes there is a 70 percent chance of a deep global recession in 2000-2001. (WorldNetDaily, 4/12/98).

74. Political instability: Although the most computerized societies may be the most affected‚ Third World countries may also have severe problems. "We're concerned about the potential disruption of power grids, telecommunications and banking services, among other possible fallout, especially in countries already torn by political tensions," the CIA said in a report.

75. Given all of the problems surrounding Y2K, a poss­ible scenario prior to the turn of the millennium is "techno-fascism." "Techno-fascism" is described as a situation where "govern­ments and large corporations would intervene to try to contain the damage rather than build for the future," according to the CIA report.

76. A Bangkok Post article explains that techno-fascism would take place because the government, which didn't exert any leadership in the crisis, sees the need to crack down on a society destined to fall apart. What would follow is the world's citizens crying for distress as they see their world crumbling right before them and realizing that neither they nor their government can do anything about it. (WorldNetDaily, 4/12/98).

77. The Ottawa Citizen on December 12 reported that the Canadian government is considering martial law in response to Y2K disruptions. Previously secret government documents the Citizen obtained say: "Among the activities that must be done to meet the problems resulting from year 2000 failures is development of relevant emergency orders and regulations required for the invocation of emergency provisions under the Emergencies Act."

78. The British government is readying a disaster unit reserved for invasion or civil unrest.

79. In the United States, Senator Robert Bennett has asked the Pentagon what plans it has "in the event of a Y2K-induced breakdown of community services that might call for martial law," and a House committee has recommended that Clinton consider declaring a national emergency. (Declan McCullagh, Wired, 31/12/98).

80. Air travel: Although airlines have tried to reassure passengers that there is nothing wrong with their aircraft‚ there is concern about the readiness of air traffic control networks. A series of 40 crucial air traffic computers controlling flights from Europe to and across America will not work beyond December 1999, their maker‚ IBM, has said. An IBM spokesman said that 40 of its model 3083 mainframe computers used at Air Route Traffic Control Centers cannot be debugged before 2000. Peter Quaintmere, technical director of the Inter­national Federation of Air Traffic Controllers‚ said: "The air traffic controllers said they had simulated the switchover from 1999 to 2000 and found that the air traffic screens went blank."

81. For planes, the biggest problems concern computer chips that operate automatic systems and may have a built-in response to date and time changes. A Boeing 747 has thousands of control chips. Only a handful have date-related millennium problems, but these include flight management computers and internal navigation systems. (Robert Uhlig, Electronic Telegraph‚ 15/1/98).

82. Military meltdowns: Sometime in 1993 the North American Air Defense Command [NORAD] in Cheyenne Mountain, Colorado, con­­ducted a test to see what would happen to all their computers—the ones that warn of a nu­clear attack—on New Year's Day of the year 2000.

83. What happened was, everything froze—the screens that monitored the early–warning satellites and radar and other communications systems that would detect a flock of missiles or bombers coming our way. "It all locked up at the stroke of midnight," recalled Robert Martin, a top computer specialist.

84. The problem is hardly restricted to NORAD. The Defense Department has about 25,000 computer systems—2,803 of them classified as "mission-critical systems," meaning that, without them‚ the military could no longer carry out a major mission.

85. "The year 2000 problem is the electronic equivalent of El Niño," Deputy Defense Secretary John J. Hamre said. "This is going to have implications in the world ... that we can't even comprehend."

86. Real-life failures have already taken place that begin to hint at how far-flung the prob­lems might be. A preview of possible military disasters was the incident in the 1991 Gulf War, when a Scud missile blew up a barracks in Saudi Arabia, killing 28 National Guard troops inside. A post–mortem of the disaster revealed that the Patriot air-defense battery failed to shoot down the Scud because the clock in the Patriot's radar system was not properly synchronized.

87. John Pike, a weapons specialist at the Federation of American Scientists‚ explained: "A lot of systems use time-synchronization as a way to establish data links." So, if one computer says it is 1900 and another says it is 2000, "they can't talk to each other." (Fred Kaplan, The Boston Globe, 21/6/98).

88. Nuclear nightmares: Deputy Defense Secretary John Hamre cited a need to calm Russian nuclear forces in particular if the millennium bug caused their computers to crash, as many systems may fail worldwide.

89. He told the Senate Armed Services Com­mittee that cash-strapped Russian forces were relying more and more on nuclear weapons "as a safeguard for their national ­security. And their early warning system is fragile."

90. Such systems, heavily reliant on computers to mesh data from satellites, radar, and other sensors, are used by Russia and the United States to monitor impending threats such as missile launches and unidentified aircraft.

91. He said Defense Secretary William Cohen ordered plans drawn up for sharing early warning information so "we don't enter into a nightmare condition where everybody is all of a sudden uncertain, and their screens go blank."

92. Although the Cold War has been over for years‚ the United States and Russia each still keep ready to deliver on short notice roughly 2,500 nuclear-tipped weapons on missiles, bombers‚ and submarines. (Reuters, 5/6/98).

93. This problem is not limited to Russia. After the former Soviet Union went toes up‚ it held a military fire sale. This means the millennial problems that plague the Soviet system have been inherited by China and North Korea, both of which bought cheap Russian hardware, as well as by Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan‚ former Soviet Republics with nuclear missiles stowed within their borders. (Adam L. Penen­berg, Forbes‚ 7/98).

How various countries outside the U.S.

could be affected

94. If you're trying to get a handle on just how serious the year 2000 problem is in the world beyond the U.S., a trio of statements from the Global Millennium Foundation make it starkly plain:

• All countries have a serious year 2000 problem.

• No country is further advanced in fixing it than Canada.

• Canada is losing this race.

95. Indeed, the Financial Times on Dec. 3 quoted Canada's auditor general, Denis Desautels, saying he is "very concerned that many essential government services may be disrupted at the start of 2000. Work on the systems supporting these services is falling behind an already tight schedule."

96. Yet Gartner Group, a consulting firm that's made Y2K a specialty, places the Land of the Rising Puck in the top rank of countries dealing with the computer crisis. That means Gartner expects only 15 percent of companies in those lands to suffer a "mission-critical" system ­failure.

97. Gartner defines mission-critical failures as causing any of these unpleasantries: a shutdown of business, production or product delivery operations; health hazard to individuals; considerable revenue loss; a significant litigation expense or loss; and significant loss of customers or revenue.

98. Here's the status of other countries:

Sort of OK (15% of companies experience a mission-critical failure):

Australia, Belgium, Bermuda‚ Canada, Denmark, Ireland, Israel, Netherlands, Switzerland, Sweden, U.K., U.S.

Not Real Good (33% of companies experience a mission-critical failure):

Brazil, Chile‚ Finland, France‚ Hungary, Italy, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Portugal, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan.

Quite Bad (50% of companies experience a mission–critical failure):

Argentina, Armenia, Austria, Bulgaria, Colombia, Czech Republic, Germany, Guatemala‚ India, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Malaysia, North Korea‚ Poland, Puerto Rico, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, Yugoslavia.

Scary (66% of companies experience a mission-critical failure):

Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangla­desh, Cam­bodia, Chad‚ China, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Indonesia, Kenya, Laos, Lithuania, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Romania, Russia, Somalia, Sudan, Thailand‚ Uruguay, Vietnam, Zaire, Zim­babwe. (John J. Edwards III,, 12/98)

99. (Mama:) This analysis of how different countries could fare is just that, of course—an analysis from an outsider's point of view. The chaos and confusion in developed countries—whether there's little or much—may well be worse than that in the underdeveloped countries, simply because the former are so much more dependent on computers and technology than the latter are. Whatever the problems‚ as the Lord's children we can claim the promise that "He shall give His angels charge over thee, to keep thee in all thy ways." He also promised, "He shall call upon Me and I will answer him. I will be with him in trouble. I will deliver him" (Psa.91:11,15).

Other Dates with Destiny

100. January 1, 2000‚ isn't the only date that could cause problems. There are other dates both before and after that time which could cause serious problems and disruptions around the world, as the following articles explain. So in our prepar­ations for the millennium bug, we shouldn't wait until the last minute. If we do, it may well be too late!

Closer than you think

101. The millennium bug has been largely perceived as a single event that will occur Jan. 1‚ 2000. But as programmers and engineers have begun to delve deeper into the problems of their creations, it has become clear that the bug is not a single event but rather part of a series of crashes that will strike for months before, and perhaps years after, that fateful date. The problem could be closer than you think.

102. Other than January 1, 2000, the next date likely to cause problems is April 1, 1999‚ because that is when some government and corporate fiscal years start. "Those government organizations are going to be processing their fiscal year 2000 at that time, so those systems have to be up to snuff," commented Capers Jones, one of the leading year 2000 researchers in the U.S. From then on, different government agencies start hitting their fiscal years nearly every month through the end of the year.

103. According to Tim May, a retired Intel physicist famous for discovering the damaging effects of nuclear radiation on computer chips, "Financial collapse will occur when investors wake up and realize what's coming‚" he says. Just one example of what's in store: "July 1, 1999 is the start of the IRS fiscal year 2000. The IRS won't be able to process various forms and funds at that time." IRS Commissioner Charles Rossotti shares his concern: "If we don't fix the century-date problem‚ we will have a situation scarier than the average disaster movie you might see on a Sunday night," he said in The Wall Street Journal on April 22. "There could be 90 million taxpayers who won't get their refunds, and 95 percent of the revenue stream of the United States could be jeopardized."

104. On Aug. 22, 1999, numerous electronic positioning devices will be affected by a date change that occurs every 20 years in the Global Positioning System satellite network.

105. On Sept. 9, 1999, the old-style use of strings of 9s as special program markers will rear its head‚ causing software to lock into electronic dementia over whether the number is a date or a marker.

106. Just two months after the turn of the millennium, programs will begin to choke once again, this time over whether or not 2000 is a leap year. It is‚ but for reasons so obscure that it could qualify as a question in "Final Jeopardy."

107. As most schoolchildren know, every four years, an extra day is added to February to make up for the slight difference between the 365.24 days of the solar year and the usual 365 days of the Gregorian calendar. If a year is evenly divisible by four, it is a leap year.

108. The extra day brings the two time systems nearly in line with each other, but not quite. To account for the remaining difference, a lesser-known second rule requires the calendar to skip a leap year every 100 years. By convention‚ those non-leap years occur at the turn of centuries, such as 1700, 1800 and 1900.

109. Many programmers were aware of the second rule and wrote their programs accordingly. But‚ unfortunately, there is a third rule to accommodate what is now a barely perceptible distinction between the solar year and Gregorian calendar: every four centuries, a non-leap year becomes a leap year. In other words, 2000 is a leap year. And it's going to be a problem for those who haven't set their calendars accordingly. (Gregory Crawford‚ Reuters, 25/9/98; Ashley Dunn, Los Angeles Times, 17/8/98; Amara D. Angelica, TechWeek, 22/5/98).

Nations already experiencing Y2K computer problems

110. A British report said that computers have already been affected by the date-change problem even before the Y2K computer problem hits. It emphasized that most European nations have been more concerned about preparing computers for the euro than making millennium bug fixes. It listed the following major computer problems that have already happened, and others:

111. "In Holland, motorists with newly issued bank cards with expiry dates of 00 had them rejected at petrol stations. A Swedish woman received a letter informing her of the various schools on offer when she reached 10. She was, in fact, born in 1890. A tin of corned beef from Marks & Spencer was rejected on the grounds that the food was 96 years out of date. A date roll-over check on a power station led to its shutdown within 20 seconds. The fault was traced to a flue stack temperature sensor that was programmed to minimize fluctuations over time, ­using the date to make calculations. A computer clock set to 2000 at Chrysler Motors in America shut down the security system and refused to let staff out. A sewage treatment plant in America found that in 2000‚ valve-control systems would have released untreated sewage into the rivers. During a test in an American nuclear power station‚ the device that controlled the depth of the fuel rod in the core began a dangerous oscillation." (The Watchman, 10/11/98).

What Can You Do to Prepare

For Possible Problems?

112. (Mama:) Concerned governments, organi­za­­tions and individuals have been prepar­ing for some time for the millennium bug. Following are some of the steps they're taking and recommending:

It's good to begin preparing now

113. In the words of Michael Hyatt‚ author of The Millennium Bug: "In previous generations, emergency preparedness was a way of life. No one was seduced by the 'myth of continuity'; everyone assumed that life would be periodically interrupted by crises. But many of us have never really had to face a widespread social crisis. War, famine and pestilence are outside Americans' realm of firsthand experience." When he was a boy in rural Nebraska, Mr. Hyatt recalls‚ people had a storm shelter and a pantry for protection against tornadoes and severe blizzards. And neighbor was always ready to help neighbor. (Neal R. Pierce, The Washington Post, 4/11/98).

114. Britons have been warned to stock up with two weeks' emergency food rations in anticipation of millennium bug-related shortages. In an unprece­dented statement indicating the level of panic in official circles, the Department of Trade and Industry-funded task force, charged with minimizing potential damage caused by the bug‚ has said that contingency planning for a worst-case scenario should start as soon as possible.

115. "We are talking about people having a judicious amount of surplus food in their kitchen cupboards. Anyone sensible would plan for this," said Gwynneth Flower, head of the govern­ment's millennium bug taskforce Action 2000. "Because we don't want to see panic buying in the weeks leading up to next Christmas, consumers should think about this in advance." (Nicole Veash, The Guardian, 13/12/98).

116. Mormon leaders have always admonished their followers to have a one-year food supply‚ but now many others are stocking up as well. "We have everyone from stock brokers to nuclear engineers buy our products," one maker of survival food said. A survey from CIO Magazine, a publication for chief information officers, chief executives and vice presidents of large corporations, shows the concern among business leaders. Of 330 executives surveyed‚ 56 percent said they believed the millennium bug would not be fixed in time. 10 percent said they planned to stockpile canned goods, 11 percent were buying generators and wood stoves, and 13 percent were upgrading personal security "with alarm systems, fencing and firearms." (Joel Campbell, Deseret News, 8/9/98; New York Times News Service, 2/12/98).

117. Joel Skousen is a consultant who has designed high-security, totally self-sufficient resi­dences and retreats in every state of the Union plus Canada and Central America. Most of his clients have been wealthy people who either live in high crime areas or possess vacation homes in forested land where electricity is not available. But he has also designed safe ­havens for Christian conservatives "who have significant concerns about the future of govern­ment and society."

118. For those opting to stay put when we usher in the new century, Skousen has some recommenda­tions:

119. • Withdraw two to three months' worth of cash no later than mid-1999. Waiting any longer could be a problem if the Federal Reserve decides to dampen any run on the banks. Also, keep copies of your banking statements in case computer malfunctions cause disputes with your bank over the size of your assets.

120. • Stockpile essential equipment and sup­plies to allow you to live without electricity if need be. He recommends purchasing a gener­ator, non­perishable food, water and medical supplies.

121. • If you're stuck in an urban area, do your best to secure your residence from intru­ders. In general, he opposes stockpiling weapons, instead recommending that people build hidden rooms to avoid thugs. (Adam L. Penen­berg‚ Forbes, 5/98).

122. No one can guarantee that a Y2K dis­aster will happen. What concerns the new Y2K survivalists is that no one can guarantee that it won't. "It's not a question of who's right—it's a question of mitigating the consequences of who's wrong," says Paul Milne, a vocal Y2K survivalist. "If I'm wrong I'm still here, the birds are chirping, the sky is still above. But if they're wrong, they're dead."

123. Programmers and hardened survival­ists are now debating how to defend themselves against what they jokingly refer to as "Cannibal Welfare Mutants"—violent city refugees who may be hunting for food in the early months of 2000. (Janelle Brown, Salon Magazine, 11/6/98).

Checklist for survival

Stephan Archer, WorldNetDaily, 15/12/98

124. Because it is impossible to foresee exactly what problems will have to be dealt with at the turn of the millennium, the American Red Cross has developed a checklist to help everyone handle Y2K in the best fashion possible.

125. Because many types of electrical equipment have embedded chips in them that control vital operations‚ the American Red Cross suggests that you first "check with manufacturers of any essential computer-controlled electronic equipment in your home to see if that equipment may be affected." This includes garage door openers, electronic locks, consumer electronics, security and fire systems‚ appliances and programmable thermostats. If the equipment will be affected, it should be dealt with according to the manufacturer's instructions.

126. The second thing the organization suggests is to stock disaster supplies for yourself and all who live with you. This will include nonperishable foods and water as well as an adequate supply of non­prescription and prescription drugs that you and your household regularly use.

127. "At least a gallon [approximately 4 ­liters] of water per person per day to drink and a gallon per person per day for hygienic purposes should be stored," suggested Christopher ­Thomas, a spokesperson for the American Red Cross.

128. Because computer systems may fail at banks, the American Red Cross suggests that you keep extra cash on hand as well in a safe place. "Withdraw your money from your bank in small amounts well in advance of 12/31/99 to avoid long lines at the bank at the last minute‚" the Red Cross said.

129. A few days or so before 12/31/99, the American Red Cross also suggests filling your gas tank. However, you should keep in mind that your car may have embedded chips that control vital functions such as power brakes, power steering, electronic fuel injection and other functions.

130. In case power fails in your area, the American Red Cross says that it would be wise to have alternative cooking methods planned. However, "We recommend you don't use camp stoves inside the house because this is how many fires start," Thomas said.

131. If power goes out, so may the heat. Having extra blankets, coats, hats, gloves and other articles of warm clothing will be a must since the Y2K problem will happen during the heart of the winter season.

132. If lights go out due to power failures, flashlights—not candles—should be used for lighting purposes. Make sure you have a good supply of fresh batteries as well.

133. Speaking of batteries, keep some available for portable radios and televisions so that you can keep up with information.

134. The American Red Cross also suggests checking the batteries in smoke and fire alarms as well. If your fire alarm system is centrally wired throughout the house, make sure it has a battery backup.

135. Any generators used for power should be hooked up directly to the appliance that you want to send power to, and the Red Cross reminds you that generators should always be kept in well-ventilated areas.

136. Last but not least, the American Red Cross asks that you check with local emergency service providers to see if more information is available on how your community will be hand­ling the Y2K problem.

137. No matter how serious Y2K may be‚ Thomas believes that everyone should be prepared. "We have to be prepared for the poss­ibility (of a disaster)," said Thomas. "And the American Red Cross—though hoping for the best—is prepared for the worst."

A disaster supply kit

138. Following are a number of supplies you may need if your family is confined at home during an emergency. Adjust according to your needs.

139. There are six basics you should stock for your home: water‚ food, first aid supplies, clothing and bedding, tools and emergency supplies, and special items. Keep the items that you would most likely need during an evacuation in easy-to–carry containers. Suggested items are marked with an asterisk(*).

140. Possible containers include a large, covered trash container, a camping backpack, or a duffel bag.

141. Store your supplies in a convenient place known to all family members. Keep a smaller version in the trunk of your car.

142. Keep items in airtight plastic bags. Change your stored water supply regularly so it stays fresh. Replace your stored food regularly as well. Rethink your kit and family needs at least once a year. Replace batteries, update clothes‚ etc.


•Store water in sealed, unbreakable con­tainers. Avoid containers that will decompose or break. Store one gallon of water per person per day. Identify the storage date and replace every six months.


•Store nonperishable food according to your needs. Select foods that require no refrigera­tion, little preparation or cooking, and little or no water. Select food items that are compact and lightweight. *Include a selection of ready-to-eat canned meats, fruits‚ and vegetables. [Editor: See ML #3215:117, GN 816, for the Lord's counsel on quantities of food and water. The types of food you store will vary from country to country, depending on what's available locally. Check ML #858 and 859, Vol.7, for more specifics on foods and their shelf life, as well as more very helpful survival tips.]

First Aid Kit. Assemble a first aid kit for your home and one for each car. A first aid kit* should include:

•Sterile adhesive bandages in assorted sizes

•Assorted sizes of safety pins

•Cleansing agent/soap

•Latex gloves (2 pairs)


•2-inch sterile gauze pads (4-6)

•4-inch sterile gauze pads (4–6)

•Triangular bandages (3)

•2-inch sterile roller bandages (3 rolls)

•3–inch sterile roller bandages (3 rolls)




•Moistened towelettes



•Tube of petroleum jelly or other lubricant

Non-Prescription Drugs

•Aspirin or non-aspirin pain reliever

•Anti-diarrhea medication

•Antacid (for stomach upset)

•Syrup of Ipecac (use to induce vomiting if advised by the Poison Control ­Center)


•Activated charcoal (use if advised by the Poison Control Center)

Tools and Supplies

•Mess kits, or paper cups, plates‚ and plastic utensils*

•Emergency preparedness manual

•Battery-operated radio and extra ­batteries*

•Flashlight and extra batteries*

•Cash or traveler's checks, change*

•Non-electric can opener, utility knife*

•Fire extinguisher: small canister A-B-C type





•Matches in a waterproof container

•Aluminum foil

•Plastic storage containers

•Signal flare

•Paper, pencil

•Needles, thread

•Medicine dropper

•Wrench to turn off household gas and water


•Plastic sheeting

•Map of the area (for evacuating or locating shelters)


•Toilet paper, towelettes*

•Soap‚ liquid detergent*

•Feminine supplies*

•Personal hygiene items*

•Plastic garbage bags, ties (for personal sanitation uses)

•Plastic bucket with tight lid


•Household chlorine bleach

Clothing and Bedding

•Include at least one complete change of clothing and footwear per person

•Sturdy shoes or work boots*

•Rain gear*

•Blankets or sleeping bags*

•Hat and gloves

•Thermal underwear


For Baby*




•Powdered milk


For Adults*

•Denture needs

•Contact lenses and supplies

•Extra eye glasses

For children

•Games and books

Important family documents. Keep these records in a waterproof, portable container:

•Passports, social security cards, immunization records

•Insurance policies, contracts, deeds‚ stocks and bonds

•Bank account numbers

•Credit card account numbers and companies

•Name and address of relative or friend who should be notified if you are injured

•Inventory of valuable household goods, important telephone numbers

•Family records (birth, marriage‚ death certificates)

For a car kit include:

•Battery-powered radio, flashlight, extra batteries‚ and maps

•Blanket and first aid kit


•Tire repair kit, booster cables, pump, and flares

•Fire extinguisher (5 lb., A-B-C type)

•Bottled water and nonperishable foods

•An extra set of car keys

Y2K—Just One of the Dominoes

That Will Fall!

143. (Mama:) As you see‚ there's a lot which we can do to get ready for the days ahead, and whether or not there are severe disruptions due to the Y2K problem, it never hurts to be prepared for any eventuality. The Lord explains in the next message that Y2K is just one of the dominoes which will fall in these Last Days. And He again encourages us not to fear and worry but to preach the Gospel!

144. (Jesus speaking:) You can discern the signs in the skies to know that a storm is coming, and so I call you to discern these signs of the times, for a great storm is brewing on the horizon. Just like in the vision your Father David had of "The Great Escape," there will be those who heed My warning signs and follow Me closely up the mountain to safety, and there will be those who see it coming too late to remove themselves from danger.

145. The year 2000 bug is a key playing chip in the Antichrist's scheme to take control of the world's empires. Satan is the author of confusion, and he specializes in this area. It was he who clouded the minds of the men who programmed the most basic computer com­ponents, so that they would not have a greater and more long-term vision.

146. Even as I say that this is part of Satan's design, I will add that the Enemy is the propagator of fear. In the end, fear is what will bring this proud world to its knees, as the material goods and so–called government security that people so love grow wings and begin to fly out of their lives. It is then that the world will represent a drowning man, willing to give up his very freedom if only someone will save his life. In that same hour‚ the world, seeking to save its life, shall lose it.

147. This Y2K bug is just one of the dominoes that will fall and affect other dominoes, and all shall work together to bring about the Great Confusion spoken of in My Word. Modern society is not prepared for this kind of crisis, for they have removed Me from their schools, replacing Me and My Word and ways with that of materialism‚ evolution, and many other things that are contrary to godliness. They have removed Me from their lifestyles, for never before has there been such a striving for wealth and success, a focus on pleasure and self-satisfaction, such a selfishness permeating every ­corner of society. In doing these things, they are setting themselves up in a house built on sand. When the storms come and the rain falls‚ this house will wash away. There will be a massive breakdown of the most basic moral codes that man has lived by for ages. Even those who still strive to have some kind of moral standard will be swallowed up by the vast majority of people who only care for their own skin.

148. This millennium bug is yet another catalyst, designed by Satan to bring about the reign of his world empire‚ and allowed by Me to speed up these Last Days and hasten My final return.

149. There are many who see these dark clouds on the horizon and sense the danger, yet do not know what to do. As the noose tightens slowly but steadily about the world's neck, I call My children everywhere to preach the good news of One Who can save them from their torment of mind and from their enslavement to the god Mammon. For in the dark days that are soon coming, the only safe dwelling place will be under the shadow of My wings. For I am a rock and a fortress to those who fear My Name, and I will always care for My Own. (End of message from Jesus.)

Despite Potential Y2K Problems,

Our Emphasis Should Continue

To Be the Gospel

150. (Mama: ) I hope the predictions above from System news sources and preparations they're recommending haven't alarmed you or made you think we're becoming Y2K "sur­vival­ists," as they call those who are preparing for the millennium bug to the exclusion of everything else! We're recommending that you make prudent preparations for the future, as the Lord shows you, not that you begin devoting your full time or even most of your time to gathering survival supplies.

151. Should you seek the Lord about the days to come and ask Him what your plans should be? Yes. Should you begin preparing now with adequate survival food, water and supplies? Yes. Should all this be your main focus or overriding concern? No. Our main calling is still to preach the Gospel, not to retreat into refuges! (See "Refuges," ML #1003, Vol.9.)

152. Some American Christians in particular have gotten their priorities a little mixed up because of fear or selfishness‚ as you can see by the following article:

153. Jim Jacobson is concerned about Ameri­can Christians. And he's angry. Jacobson, president of Christian Freedom International, has seen dreadful persecution in Sudan and Burma. But back home in Texas and Michigan, Christians don't seem to care much about the suffering of their brothers and sisters in Christ—they just want to talk about Y2K.

154. "I'm frankly floored by it," Jacobson told Religion Today. "When you are around persecuted Christians, then you see people whine and get nervous about thisÂ…. I have very little empathy about it. Has the church come down to this?"

155. Some churches are "becoming like a militia, stockpiling food and adopting a bunker mentality," Jacobson said. One congregation ousted its pastor because he was "not diehard enough" about preparing for Y2K.

156. Jacobson finds it disturbing that "Christians behave like this. There is a real spirit of fear. We are not supposed to have a spirit of fear or be anxious for tomorrow." Y2K mania is "almost like an evil plot to paralyze the church," he said.

157. "When I go to Third World places they laugh about it. They have nothing—no electricity, no running water. There is nothing but people fighting for their lives. You tell them Christians in the United States are scared to death about a computer problem, and they don't know whether to laugh or cry for us."

158. Jacobson says he understands the potential seriousness of Y2K, and agrees that it is good to be "prudent and wise." But even "if God is going to work through a computer we should not let this get us down as Christians. Rejoice because our redemption draws nigh." (Religion Today, 20/9/98).

159. (Mama: ) Amen! It won't be long now! The darker the night, the sooner the dawn. The day when the trumpet sounds and our Lord and Lover returns to draw us to His bosom is getting closer all the time. Be a faithful witness, and you'll be so happy when you meet Him face to face! I love you!

Love, Mama

Additional Reading

160. Here are some helpful Letters and pubs on physical and spiritual preparation for emer­gencies:

•"The Emergency," ML #160A:1-7, Vol.2.

•"The Crash," ML #284, Vol.2.

•"Death to the Cities," ML #373:20–32,119-125; Vol.3.

•"Gotcher Fleebag?" ML #386, Vol.3.

•"Emergency Tidbits‚" ML #855‚ Vol.7.

•"Be Prepared," ML #858, Vol.7.

•"Survival for Families!" ML #859, Vol.7.

•"Why the Crash?" ML #867:41-66, Vol.7.

•"'Blessed Are the Dead'!" ML #912:1-9, Vol.8.

•"Refuges!" ML #1003, Vol.9.

•"If We Only Had," ML #2170:58-68‚ Vol.16.

•"World Currents!—No.87," ML #3152:45-73, Lifelines 24.

•"World Currents!—No.90," ML #3215:111-126‚ GN 816.

161. For further study, see the following Cat Book sections: "Be Prepared/Contingency Plans," "Refuge and Survival" and "Reserves and Flee Funds." See also the reading lists and practical requirements in the Survival Skills department of the CVC. This has very helpful material in categorized reading lists.

162. P.S. When the Y2K problem strikes, you may want to be prepared with a good buffer in case your fundraising is affected. We suggest you start putting aside funds every month so that you'll be well prepared at the end of the year and can weather any disruptions.