—MO December 30, 1971 NO.150
1. I'VE BEEN WAITING FOR A YEAR. When we were in Israel we wrote you the first letter begging you to prepare new teams for the road and pleading with you to teach and train them how to travel, how to care for their vehicles, how to equip them for camping, how to pack and load and drive and camp and witness‚ and specifically asking you to please write up exact detailed instructions and print them for distribution to all the leaders of new teams on exactly what to do.
2. BUT HERE WE ARE AT LAST SENDING OUT DOZENS OF NEW TEAMS, already establishing many new Colonies, and I have yet to see one sheet of instructions on how to travel and camp! But I can't say the Spirit didn't warn me‚ that although many of your leaders have had excellent experience along this line from the very beginning and I thought they could surely do this, I had a sneaking feeling even then that I would eventually be the guy who was going to have to write up these instructions!—And sure enough‚ here I am writing them at last, because nobody else has ever done it yet! But Praise God, I'm gonna enjoy it, because if there's anything I know how to do, it's travel and camp, because I've been doing it all my life—and I love it!—For Jesus!
3. FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES‚ GOD'S MEN HAVE ALWAYS BEEN ON THE MOVE FOR THE LORD: "These all...confessed the they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth," declaring "plainly that they seek a country—a better...country, that is, an Heavenly: wherefore God is not ashamed to be called their God"! Hallelujah! God is proud of His travelling pilgrims on their constant pilgrimages for Him en route to that Heavenly City "which hath foundations, whose Builder and Maker is God...for He hath prepared for them a City!"—Hebrews 11. Amen? Hallelujah!
4. MAN'S FIRST TRIP WAS A SAD ONE when he was exiled from that Heavenly Garden of Eden out into the cold cruel world because of unbelief, sin‚ and disobedience. But by faith, His righteousness and your obedience, you can again journey back into a Garden of Eden, a Heaven on Earth amongst the beauties of God's Creation, by travelling and camping for the Lord! As in every "Pilgrim's Progress", it is sometimes "a rough and a rugged road with a hard and a heavy load, and the people you meet aren't always kind". But most of the tome it's a smooth and a happy road, and He helps you to carry the load, and many lost souls you'll help to find! Hallelujah! Amen?
5. CAIN WENT OUT RIGHT AWAY AND STARTED SETTLING DOWN AND BUILDING CITIES, as the men of this world have been doing ever since‚ and "because they have no changes, therefore they fear not God"! But God's Children have always been on the move, never setting down more than temporarily, seldom building cities, because they know this world is not their home, they're just a passin' through tryin' to get a job done for Jesus on the way! Amen? Hallelujah! Keep movin'!
6. MAN'S WICKED CITIES BECAME CESSPOOLS OF INIQUITY and "festering sores on the body politic", as the world-famous historian Toynbee said. So the first thing Noah had to do was to build a boat so he could shove off and get out of 'em! I'm not much for boating, not having had much experience along that line‚ except on big steamships operated by the guys that know how—but some of you guys seem to have the faith for it, and that's one way of travelling for the Truth, so don't let me discourage you from island–hopping for Jesus or coastal sailing for the Lord in the quieter waters of the intra-coastal waterways, the broad rivers, wide lakes, and smaller seas, like the Gulf, Caribbean, Mediterranean, Indonesian Islands, South Sea Isles, etc. God bless you! But some of you sailors will have to write the instructions for that!—Not me!
7. BUT WHEN NOAH LANDED‚ HE CLIMBED DOWN THAT MOUNTAIN AND TRAVELLED DOWN THE EUPHRATES nearly a thousand miles until his descendants wanted to settle down again and build another big city called Babylon. So God had to confuse their languages and scatter them so they'd get on the move again and keep travelling 'til they reached the whole world: Asia, Africa, Europe, North and South America, Australia, and the Islands of the Sea.
8. "BY FAITH ABRAHAM, WHEN HE WAS CALLED TO GO OUT INTO A PLACE WHICH HE SHOULD AFTER RECEIVE FOR AN INHERITANCE, OBEYED; and he went out, not knowing whither he went. By faith he sojourned in the land of promise, as in a strange country, dwelling in tabernacles (tents) with Isaac and Jacob, the heirs with him of the same promise", and they dwelt in tents all the days of their lives! Israel camped in the Wilderness 40 years! The Rechabites promised God they'd live in these mobile homes, called tents, all their lives, and they kept moving and surviving; whereas, the homebuilders got left behind under the heel of their conquerors!
JESUS MOVED TO EGYPT WHEN HE WAS ONLY A BABY, and they undoubtedly camped out all the way there and all the way back to Nazareth again a few years later. He and His disciples seemed to be camping out most of the time‚ either under the trees or in other people's boats or houses, always on the move for the Lord!
9. —AND HIS FOLLOWERS HAVE BEEN MOVING EVER SINCE, from Jerusalem to Antioch to Ephesus to Athens to Rome and to every nation on earth, spreading the Gospel as they went! Amen! Hallelujah! Praise the Lord! Let's keep moving for the Lord, spreading the Good News as we go, and moving so fast the System will seldom be able to catch up with us! Like the Irishman's flea, they'll seldom know where to put a finger on us!—We just keep going for God! Hallelujah!
10. WHEN EUROPE BECAME WEALTHY, POWERFUL, DICTATORIAL, AND CONTROLLED BY THE CHURCH‚ OUR FOREFATHERS MOVED TO AMERICA FOR FREEDOM to live and worship as they pleased, and as long as they kept moving they weren't very secure but they had lots of freedom—until they settled down and become rich, powerful, dictatorial, and controlled by the Church all over again!—So now it's time to move again!—This time‚ once again, to other countries freer and more receptive! Amen.
11. MY FOREFATHERS WENT TO AMERICA FROM GERMANY AND SWEDEN looking for freedom and opportunity and found it then. My grandfather, Dr. John L. Brandt, toured the world many times and pastored in West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Oklahoma, California‚ and Melbourne, Australia. And the first thing I can remember about my own Mom and Dad was moving: From California to Oklahoma to Canada to Florida and back to California again!
12. MY EARLIEST MEMORIES WERE OF TRAVELLING ON THE ROAD AND CAMPING OUT—AND I LOVED IT! We had an old Model-T Ford open touring car with a collapsible canvas roof that we first went to Oklahoma in when I was only a year old. Then when I was three we graduated to what was then known as a California hardtop Model-T Ford which had actual glass windows and was completely enclosed!—Think of that!—And completely air-conditioned just by rolling down the windows!—Only, since most of the roads weren't paved, you kept'em up most of the time to keep the dust out!—and when it rained, I had to stand beside my Daddy and work by hand that new-fangled gadget called a windshield wiper, which was a real honour—and I loved it! I usually sat on a pillow on top of my Dad's old typewriter between Mom and Dad's front seats where I could watch the roads and study the maps and tell 'em which way to go!
13. WE CARRIED ALL OF OUR CAMPING EQUIPMENT ON THE TOP, BACK, FENDERS, AND RUNNING BOARDS of that old Model-T because trailers hadn't even been invented yet. The tent and the tent poles were piled on top and securely tied down—A good tip for you! On the back was hung the very latest contraption invented for auto travellers called a chuck wagon, or a kind of cupboard where you stored all your food and which opened out into a pantry, kitchen table, and kitchen complete with campstove—a real modern improvement! On the running boards—you wouldn't know what that is but they were two big planks about a foot wide running from fender to fender just below the bottom of the doors—where you had special luggage racks that carried your cans of water, gas, oil, and other necessities in a country where the filling stations were hundred miles apart on dirt and gravel highways on which you could only make about a hundred miles a day! I can remember thinking we were really flying when we sometimes raced downhill at 25 miles per hour!
14. AT NIGHT YOU COULD CAMP OUT ALMOST ANYWHERE ALONGSIDE THE ROAD, dig your own toilet and build your own fire, but usually you travelled in caravans of as many as a dozen cars and camped in a circle, wagon train style, for protection from the coyotes and Indians who frequently tried to raid your foodstuff or run off with some of your equipment! So you kept a big fire going all night in the middle of the camp for light with a couple of guys on guard duty in shifts! Nowadays, we're the Indians and have to do the same to protect ourselves from the Cowboys!
15. I CAN REMEMBER WHEN WE WERE LOST IN THE MOJAVE DESERT FOR THREE DAYS WITHOUT FOOD and water!—We had just equipped our Ford with the first four-wheel brakes, called rocky Mountain Brakes, and twelve cars of us decided to take a shortcut through Wolf Pass and got caught in a blizzard at 16,000 feet on a narrow one–way trail and almost got wiped out. When we got down onto the desert all the trails had been washed out by the same storm and even the rare signs had been washed away, so we just had to hit out across the barren desert hoping we were going the right direction to the next town over a hundred miles away. Well, we weren't—and we missed the town and got lost, and were starving and dying of thirst when a posse finally found us! PTL!—Or I wouldn't be here to tell the tale! In fact, we overheard one of the guards say the night before by the campfire that he had never prayed much before but was now prayed up to date!
16. IN THOSE DAYS NEARLY EVERY TOWN IN THE WEST, AND MIDWEST HAD ITS OWN CAMPGROUND FOR THE TENTERS, commonly known as tin–can tourists because they carried most of their food in cans as well as their water, gas, and oil, besides having buckets, pails‚ pots and pans, etc. hanging all over their vehicles. The average traveller's car looked more like a loaded pack mule than an automobile! Motels were unheard of but there were cabin camps, which were all that the words imply: nothing but bare board cabins sometimes with a tent roof in which you could set up your own cots and furnish your own bedding. But these were an expensive luxury which cost a whole half a dollar a night, which the ordinary poor travelling family couldn't afford. So if you wanted a little more luxury than camping beside the road you paid twenty-five cents, which was equal to more than a dollar today, those fifty years ago, and you could have a tent site on which to pitch your tent in one of these tent cities with the ultra–convenience of outhouses and at least one running water faucet in the middle of the camp, for which you stood in line, and with the added protection of less likely raids by coyotes and Indians!
17. THE FIRST CAMPERS IN THOSE DAYS WERE OLD TRUCKS AND BUSES, fitted up into what was known as "housecars" which were considered quite a luxury, forerunners of the modern campers and motor homes. However, we were never able to afford one in those days so were very happy when the first house trailers were invented, which were considerably cheaper. So I can remember our first one back in the Twenties; a box-like affair about ten feet long with all the modern conveniences of double decker bunks, one tiny sink, a small camp stove‚ and a little dinette, and no running water, and you still had to go to the toilet outside. But it was luxury!
18. OF COURSE, TRAVEL IN THOSE DAYS HAD A LOT OF OTHER ADVANTAGES AND SAVINGS WHICH YOU DON'T HAVE TODAY: There were no driver's licenses, no car licenses, and almost no vehicle restrictions or traffic laws! I can remember when we began to see the first speed limit signs on the major highways: "Twenty-Five miles per hour"! This was out on the highway, mind you‚ not in the city! Of course, you were doing well if you had a car that could even go that fast, so it never bothered us very much. We were usually too loaded with camping gear to reach the limit! There were virtually no traffic policemen except in places like New York and Chicago, which were still full of horse–drawn wagons and carriages, nearly equaling the autos in number, and there were virtually no highway patrols. Being a pedestrian was much safer too. I can remember walking home from school three miles each day reading books as I walked, seldom having to worry about even a passing car!—But those days are gone—until the Millennium!—Alas!
19. OF COURSE, I CAN REMEMBER A LOT OF OTHER THINGS ABOUT THOSE DAYS which might surprise you: The multitude of things we didn't have then and didn't even miss because they hadn't even been invented yet, but which most people today consider necessities. My Grandfather, being a wealthy man, had the first electric lights, one of the first automobiles, absolutely the first motion picture projector, and one of the first stock tickers and telephones in St. Louis! But I'll surprise you even more when I tell you that I can not only remember the day when Model–T's were brand new, but also when everybody ran out in the yard when they heard one of those rare flying machine contraptions flying overhead! That was a real thrill! Also when one of our friends bought one of the first radios in town‚ an old huge-tubed Crosley with a big horn for a speaker, which he invited us over to hear while he laboriously twirled the many dials necessary to try to tune in one of the world's first radio station, KDKA Pittsburgh, and later WLW Cincinnati.
SOON I WAS BUILDING CRYSTAL SETS MYSELF, and soap operas began—and haven't changed. Of course, there was no TV yet and the only movies you could see were the silents at the picture shows for only ten cents, a real bargain. But of course ten cents was worth nearly half a dollar then, and you could buy a quart of milk, a loaf of bread, a gallon of gas, or twenty-five pounds of ice, or a pound of oleo for only a dime!—Only the oleo wasn't coloured then: it was plain white, looked like lard and almost tasted like it, and it was my job as a young boy to mix the colour in! The bread wasn't sliced either so that was my job, too! and you're probably wondering what we needed twenty-five pounds of ice for but refrigerators hadn't yet been invented.—Frigidaire was the first—and the first one we bought was paid for by sticking a quarter in the meter on top every day, it was such a luxury. Neon lights weren't out yet, or weren't on because they weren't in, and you were doing well to have electricity‚ and no one had ever heard of gas refrigeration. We had one of the first electric stoves, and that was quite an innovation, even though it kept burning out the fuses. There were Hoover vacuum cleaners, but no tape recorders.
YOU WERE DOING WELL TO HAVE A RECORD PLAYER that you cranked by hand and played scratchy jazz at 78 rpm's through a big born while you were doing your lessons with a fountain pen that you filled from an ink well because ball points hadn't been invented yet, much less felt tips. There were no electric clocks and most cameras were simple little boxes, like the Baby Brownie that you just pointed at somebody in bright sunlight and went "click" without a lot of fancy adjustments or flash bulbs, since there weren't any. Night pictures were taken by the light of an explosion of some kind of powder that left a cloud of white smoke and scared you half to death. I can remember the first "talkies" at the movies which contained only a few words of sound and still used mostly piano or organ accompaniment by a musician who sat there in the theatre with you watching the flick while gearing his sound to its action—very individualistic! BICYCLES WERE STILL POPULAR because they outnumbered the autos and there wasn't much chance of getting run over; but car wheels still had wooden spokes, and some, especially trucks‚ still had solid rubber tires which never had a flat—they were always flat and rode as hard and bumpy as a tank; and gearshifts were a brand new thing. Of course, the super two-lane paved highways of the East were only as wide as one lane today—but then the cars were narrower too and not so numerous that you had to worry much about having to pass anybody. There were stop signs but no stop lights, so there weren't as many accidents since you didn't have to play chicken on yellow.
THE CLOTHES WEREN'T MUCH DIFFERENT FROM TODAY: the flapper skirts were above their knees and the neckline down to the waist, in back that is, and the boys wore those big wide ties and broad–lapeled double-breasted suits, just like today, only some were with knickers and hose instead of slacks, knee pants or pistol pants being very fashionable. High heeled spikes were in, but bras mostly out being a new invention from France meaning "jewel case". But who wants to keep pretty jewels in a case! That was the women's idea! It never has gone over with us men. They had peek-a-boo blouses but the see-through was only for night wear‚ and pyjamas were all the rage! Personally, I don't care for either in bed! Lovemaking hasn't changed any since Adam and Eve‚ but was still plentiful with the same standard equipment, only it was called necking and the rumble seat of a sports coupe was a new place for it‚ sans drive-in theatre, of which there were none, but night swims and beach parties were almost as popular. Well, I could go on, but that's enough to let you know what you missed!
20. WE WENT FROM TENTS TO THAT FIRST TEN FOOT HOUSE TRAILER which wasn't even as big as a room‚ much less a house, and then when Deb was small we moved into one fourteen feet long with Grandmother and Grandfather to boot! But finally, with four kids we had to get an eighteen footer with rare dual wheels, a water pump, and a toilet stool that sat in the middle of the floor with no privacy. But we towed it all the way to Florida with an old beat up yellow taxicab and used it several years before I sold it to one of Castro's men for his use in the Escambray Mountains during the Cuban Revolution. Whereupon we graduated to our first big thirty-five footer and towed it all over the East with a big two ton truck, the whole rig weighing over ten tons in all!—Enough to give almost anybody a nervous breakdown.
AFTER WHICH WE DECIDED TO ABANDON TRAILERS FOREVER and decided it was easier to camp out in my station wagon for which I had a clever little canvas contraption called a station wagon porch. You could open the tailgates and sleep with your feet outdoors covered by this canvas thing, so your kids could sleep on both seats of the wagon—very clever and helpful if that's all you've got! You don't have to have a thirty-five foot house on wheels in order to survive on the road. When we slept in the station wagon we cooked on a Sterno canned–heat stove on picnic tables in roadside parks—a little jellied alcohol invention used by the doughboys in World War I and still very handy today if you haven't anything better, and most economical: the little stove itself costs only a little over a dollar and folds pocket-size, and a ten-cent of heat cooks one meal! The station wagon porch only twenty dollars brand new; I picked up an old mattress for the floor for only three dollars, and strung some curtains round the windows for nearly nothing—so don't tell me you can't afford camping equipment! And if you'll buy your gas at filling stations or truck stops where they have plenty of room they'll usually let you park overnight free of charge. We usually slept with our clothes on to keep warm in Winter, but with four to six people sleeping in one car you don't need much more heat than the body heat thus generated, especially if you sleep close together. If you get too cold you can always stir up a little action that'll get you warmed up!
21. BUT LET'S GET YOUR TEAM PICKED OUT FIRST. For a small six-man team to fill one car, station wagon, camper, trailer, tent, or what have you I would suggest the following: You, the leader, or Shepherd and wife if impossible, plus four assistants with the following talents distributed amongst the six of you: At least one good licensed driver‚ but preferably two for relief; and one fairly good mechanic, or at least someone with a little know how about car care and simple minor repairs or adjustment. And one of you should have some knowledge about simple repairs and maintenance for the housing you hope to have, such as the most elementary knowledge of how plumbing, wiring, gas appliances, etc. work. And of course‚ somebody ought to know how to cook, or least heat cans on your Sterno! One of you should be a fair Provisioner, or have the faith to learn how to trust God for and provision your food and basic necessities‚ such as gasoline, etc. So much for the survival crew! For the ministry you'll need at least one good secretary and/or typist, or at least somebody who can keep notes, logs, and write reports even in longhand so we can read 'em. Also one musician, preferably a singing guitarist who can at least carry a tune, knows a few revolutionary songs, and can lead inspiration and witnessing. One of you has got to be a good Pastor and Teacher, and last but not least, a businessman who can handle the money, keep books‚ receipts checking accounts‚ take care of the mail, etc., including paying the bills. These are the bare essentials for your survival and ministry‚ and amongst the six of you all of these talents need to be present if you're going to be able to do the job of starting a new Colony, and making it work, run, and get results! This is the barest minimum for even this minimum six man team with only one vehicle—and it is working, and succeeding! Some are doing wonders with even a three or four man team, and God! Praise His Name! He never fails!
22. AS FOR EQUIPMENT YOU'LL NEED AT LEAST: For no larger than a six man team, no smaller than a station wagon or preferably a camper or small trailer, so you'll at least have somewhere to lay your head and keep warm while on the road until you reach your destination and find housing—which is more than Jesus had! You'll also have some place to cook, or should have, even if it's only a Sterno stove on a camp table or picnic table. However, a little two burner bottled gas stove costs only about fifteen dollars and is a lot easier and more effective to use. You should have at least one guitar, and it possible, one typewriter‚ one camera, and a tape recorder, or provision them as soon as you can. Along with your vehicle, don't forget a few tools including such basis items as a screw driver, pliers, and a set of wrenches, if possible, even for minor repairs! And by all means don't forget a jack, lug wrench and a spare tire, as some have, sad to say; plus a flashlight, which may save your life in emergencies. Flares and first aid equipment would be desirable or lots of faith that you won't need them. A couple of one-gallon plastic water jugs are necessities if you're camping out, plus your cooking utensils and dishes including at least one frying pan, one pot, one long handled fork or spatula for use over open fires, a long handled spoon‚ a sharp knife for preparing food, a can and bottle opener, as many plates as you have people, preferably unbreakable plastic or even pie tins, plus enough knives‚ forks and spoons for your party, and of course cups and/or glasses—and don't forget the matches.—Also, a wash bowl with soap and towels. This can doubles as your dishpan if necessary, although we used to wash our dishes in our skillet in which we heated the water over the fire. And you have no idea how much you'll miss toilet paper or tissues until you're caught in the woods without 'em and have to use leaves or newspaper! A peecan is a very handy gadget for night use when camped out, or even while travelling and you don't want to stop. But don't try dumping it out the window at fifty miles an hour‚ or you'll be sorry due to the ensuing unexpected shower either of yourself, your car‚ or the folks behind you! Just be sure it has a lid so you can keep it capped until an opportunity of disposal arises, such as the next gas stop. If you're using a tent this'll come in very handy, in which case you will resemble both the rich and the poor with a canopy both over your bed as well as under! (It took Maria ten seconds to get that one!)
23. OTHER VERY USEFUL ITEMS WHICH YOU MIGHT INCLUDE ARE: A small hatchet or hand axe for cutting and chopping wood for your fire‚ a hammer and saw for cutting larger pieces or sawing limbs or logs and building you a shelter‚ or even repairing the house you hope to have. Don't forget a few nails, screws‚ tacks, bolts‚ and nuts for screwing, for which you may also need a little oil or grease of some kind. A piece of plastic or tarp to put over load or equipment while travelling, or even while camped, and sometimes under your tent and sleeping bags if you're sleeping on the ground. It will be very helpful to keep things from getting too wet. Try to keep your things together and as close as possible, either on or under the cover to protect them from the elements such as rain, drip, freezing, bugs, or other varmints. And the canopy also saves you from having to get out to bed on a cold night. Sleeping bags are best for camping‚ plus cots if you can get them, plus a camp stool or two depending on the size of your team for seating in the daytime and sleeping at night, as a place to put your clothes when they're off. But we have slept on the ground with nothing between us—I mean under us—but the tent floor, some plastic cushions or air mattresses, or even an ordinary old mattress and ordinary bedding. But you'll really need those stools to stack your clothes on and some kind of a little night light, flash light, candle, or lantern to see what you're doing, and to find your way into the woods, or to the outhouse in cases of emergency for something more serious than the canopy handle. Which reminds me, that as far as the sex of your party is concerned, you should have at least two girls on a team of six in order to keep up with the national average which seems to be about two boys for every girls right now.—And any team or Colony that has more than that ratio should be sharing with those who don't—right now!
THIS ABOUT COMPLETES MOST OF YOUR NEEDED STANDARD EQUIPMENT. Of course, don't forget plenty of paper‚ including your car papers first of all, at least the registration certificate and/or the title or at least a letter of permission to use it from its owner or the one whose name it's registered in, or you may have to spend several days in the cooler while waiting for it, as I've known a few to have to do. These papers should also include at least one or two valid driver's licenses, and I.D.'s for everyone, plush birth certificates or other proof of nationality such as passports, in case you should have to cross national borders. You don't need visas for most Western countries until you arrive at their border, at which time they will either issue you a special tourist card and/or stamp a visa permit in your passport‚ indicating the length of your permitted stay as a tourist. AND DON'T EVER ENTER ANY COUNTRY EXCEPT AS A TOURIST! —Don't say you are a missionary, student‚ preacher or anything else but a tourist; otherwise you will precipitate a special conference with immigration officials in which they may require you to meet certain qualifications for obtaining a special visa for that classification and which it may not be possible for you to meet. But almost anybody can enter almost any Western country as a tourist for at least one to three months without any hassle.
SOME OF THE REQUIRED PAPERS YOU MAY NEED if challenged are either a return ticket, ongoing ticket to some other country, or enough traveller's checks, cash, or proof of financial responsibility such as a bank account to prove that you have sufficient funds that you'll either be able to return or travel on or support yourself while in their country without becoming dependent upon their welfare. This is to make sure you're not going to be stranded there so that they have to take care of you. This requirement varies with the country or immigration official or his mood or your looks. If you're cleancut, well-dressed and with good luggage and look like a tourist ready to spend money in his country he usually won't even challenge you. But if you're sloppy, unshaven‚ scraggly and carrying a duffle bag, knapsack, back-pack‚ or bed roll‚ he probably will and might put you in the detention hall till you can raise the funds. AND DON'T FORGET YOUR OTHER PAPERS such as tracts, brochures, writing paper, etc. But keep your literature buried so deep in your luggage or scattered throughout it or over your person in pockets‚ handbags, etc. as not to attract too much attention or look like a professional missionary! Even a team in our country should never hit the road without at least as much money as an average of five dollars each and preferably more, or they could possibly hold you for vagrancy if they just wanted to harass you.
THE CLEANER, NEATER, MORE CLEANCUT, WELL-DRESSED, AND THE MORE SYSTEM THAT YOU LOOK, THE LESS HASSLES YOU'LL HAVE.—So don't go running around in rags but take along enough average clothing to look halfway decent. Also‚ pack as much basic food as you can carry in your vehicle besides yourselves and your other equipment, especially canned goods and dry foods and non-perishables which don't require refrigeration. I think the basic needs along this line which should be supplied to every outgoing team of six or more should be at least enough food to last a week and an hundred dollars for gas and other expenses! Amen!
24. NOW YOU'VE GOT YOUR TEAM, VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT READY IT'S TIME TO PACK AND LOAD. Each member of your prospective team should have been notified, and not ordered but asked, invited to be a member of your team. The decision left up to their own choice and their own burden in prayer as to whether they should join you. But if you yourself and your leaders have prayed through on these potential candidates for your particular team and the Lord has really led you in choosing them‚ the Holy Spirit is always faithful to work on their end to the line too and make them willing, if they're really the Lord's choice.
IT MAY NOT ALWAYS BE POSSIBLE FOR YOU TO TELL THEM OF YOUR EXACT DESTINATION, but at least you could hint a few clues so as to give them a little idea of what expect, such as: the climate there‚ so they'll know what kind of clothes to take; the approximate distance, so they should know something about how long they may have to plan to stay, or whether it's likely they'll ever be back again, so they can be prepared accordingly. It would also be well to suggest to each potential team member who the other possible team members may be in case this might influence their decision. Also I think it's only fair that you should tell them why they were chosen and for what job they're needed.
THIS IS NOT THE DRAFT BUT A VOLUNTEER ARMY, and I believe there'd be fewer square pegs in round holes if you'd give your people more choice in their work and where they work and who they work with. They'd also have less chance of blaming their failures on you if it was their own choice, and would probably work harder to do a good job to prove they were right and to get to do what they want to do and stay where they want to stay and work with whom they want to work.
I HAVE A LOT OF FAITH IN THE LORD'S ABILITY TO MAKE PEOPLE WANT TO DO WHAT HE WANTS THEM TO DO; so contrary to what some have said, I believe in burdens as a fairly good indicator of what the Lord wants people to do because He has promised to give us the desires of our heart. I even believe if people want to backslide you ought to let 'em backslide, if that's what they want to do. You can't legislate righteousness! You can't force people to be good! You have to let them make a choice within the limits of the rules. I believe if they really love the Lord they'll usually make the right choice. Everybody pulls a few boners‚ of course; but if somebody seems to be consistently making a habit of wrong choices then maybe he just doesn't belong in the game. And if he is constantly choosing to do his own thing rather than what he's asked to volunteer then he's definitely out of it. Everybody's got to follow the rules and the schedule, or he's longer a member. But when it comes to a dangerous assignment like pioneering, he should have a voluntary choice because it's gonna take a lot of want–to to put it over. Of course‚ you may have to pray with him, present the need, and show him why, but let him choose!
25. AFTER YOUR TEAM IS CALLED AND CHOSEN, HERE ARE SOME TIPS ON PACKING AND LOADING;
THE FIRST REQUIREMENT OF THIS IS TO LET EACH OF YOUR TEAM MEMBERS KNOW THE RESTRICTED AMOUNT OF BAGGAGE they are permitted‚ which is usually one medium sized clothing container and one sleeping bag only. It cannot be more than this because with six people and all your other gear you'll never be able to get it all on unless you make them adhere strictly to the limitations. If you only have a passenger car for your vehicle you'll have to carry a tent for your temporary housing, so your luggage is gonna be a real problem. In this case, you'll need a luggage rack on top for your lightest weight bags covered with your tent or tarp, putting your heaviest luggage in the trunk. Then load your heaviest people up front if possible, and your light-weights in the rear, and with your heavier-weights of each seated toward the side of the car which is the high side of the road and can be weighted down a little more than the low side. This makes for better car handling and balance. The same holds true of any type of vehicle from a Volks bug to a bus. Even distribution of weight with these factors in mind is extremely important to the balance of your vehicle on curves and the load its tires will have to sustain. Of course don't overload it on either side or you'll defeat the purpose‚ but just load it slightly heavier on the side nearest the centre of the road and never put your heavy luggage on top as this will make you top-heavy, hard to negotiate curves or turns, and could even endanger you with overturning.
IN THE TRUNK PLACE THE HEAVIEST PIECES TOWARD THE FRONT OF THE CAR, the lighter pieces toward the tail, so you won't be dragging your tail too much and overloading the rear tires. Put the big pieces in first and fit them exactly, like the pieces of a Chinese puzzle, trying them this way and then that until you have got the most space-saving combination. Fit your smaller pieces in and around these in the holes that are left, and any loose clothing‚ shoes and even smaller objects can be stuffed in the still-remaining holes until you haven't a cubic inch wasted. The girls will want their purses or smaller necessity bags, luncheon materials, etc. and the boys, their shaving kits, Bibles, etc. inside but don't obstruct the rear window!
YOU'LL FIND THE REAR WINDOW SHELF A GOOD PLACE TO LAY FLAT COATS, JACKETS‚ OR SWEATERS that you're wearing, pressed down so the driver can still see over them. It is illegal to obstruct this window unless you have a sideview mirror, and even so that's not too good for safety as a driver must always keep one eye on the road behind him. If a patrolman sees this rear window stuffed full with your vision completely blocked out and no sideview mirror he could stop you and give you a ticket, or at the very least stop you and warn you to clear it for your own safety's sake.
TRAFFIC LAWS ARE MADE FOR YOUR OWN PROTECTION SO KEEP THEM! You also must not have anything protruding through you side windows or from your luggage rack above more than six inches beyond the side of the car—That's the law, and a good one. Don't stack up junk on the dashboard beneath the windshield either, such as literature, etc. where it can be easily read from the outside and also makes bad dangerous reflections on the inside of the windshield which can seriously hamper the driver's good vision as well as make for a very messy looking interior, plainly visible from the outside. The only thing I ever allowed on a dashboard was a road map‚ and even that can cause a serious mirrored reflection especially if the sun hits it, which can almost blot out your vision. If there are any good clothes‚ such as Provisioner's suit or dress which must be hung up inside the car be sure that these hangups are hung only on the side directly behind the driver. If placed on the opposite side they will seriously obstruct his vision to the rear and any cars approaching from that direction on a multi-lane highway when he's trying to change lanes or when passing and this can be very dangerous.
IN OTHER WORDS, DO NOT OBSTRUCT ANY WINDOWS except the side rear windows behind the driver. These are the only ones he can do without because he has his own window to see out of on his side. Also, you're not allowed to leave your trunk lid partly open just because you've got so much stuff in it that you can't get it shut. You have to tie it down, as it's unlawful to have the license plate in such a position that it cannot be clearly seen, and also if the lids is too high, it too can obstruct your rear window vision. Besides, if it rains everything in there will get soaked. If you're trunk is so full you can't get the lid shut it's too full‚ and don't force it too much or you may not be able to get it open. Also‚ don't stack stuff too high on your top luggage rack‚ preferably not over 18 inches, or it will offer too much wind resistance and cut down your gas mileage. Be sure you cover the things on the luggage rack both above and beneath and tie it all tightly or rain can even blow into it from underneath or a piece can actually blow off. I know—I've had it happen! If it strikes a car in the rear it could cause an accident, and you'd be held responsible! Don't let it happen to you!
ONE LAST PLACE WHICH YOU MIGHT NOT HAVE THOUGHT OF, but makes a very convenient location to carry sleeping bags and bedding. Guess where? Sit on them‚ unfolded rolled out and spread out from side to side, and even behind you, and draped over the front of the seat and pressed down by your weight on both front and back seats. You'll be surprised how much bedding you can carry and how comfortably you'll ride! Just don't get it stacked so high that your head hits the ceiling or the driver has to duck his head to see out the windshield, and don't let it get dragged down on the dirty floor under your feet. Some small cases can‚ however, sometimes be placed very comfortably on the floor under or between your feet. Sometimes there's even a little room for odds and ends underneath the seats! I've even stuffed things inside the front grill where they didn't obstruct air getting to the radiator and when it didn't matter if they got wet! When travelling fully loaded there's not a nook or cranny of any car where you can't put something! I just pity you if you have a flat or have to cross a border loaded like that where you might have to unload everything to get at the spare tire or open for inspection! Be also very cautions that no lights or license plates are covered by any part of your load, and try keep the things that are most frequently used, the most easily accessible. A word to the wise might be sufficient, but sometimes it takes many words for the dumb or stupid or ignorant, to be of help. I'm trying not to take any chances. I don't know which you are so I'm trying to tell you every detail.
26. IF YOU'RE BLESSED WITH A LUGGAGE TRAILER OR CAMP TRAILER HERE'S HOW TO LOAD THESE: First of all make sure you've got a good stout hitch and the trailer is securely hitched and chained to it. A fairly good test is to jump up and down on the tongue of the trailer after it's hitched. Work up a rhythm which causes both car and trailer to bounce up and down with all your weight with a real hard bump. If this doesn't cause it to break or bend either the tongue or the hitch, you should be in pretty good shape. Also, don't forget that nearly all countries require not only a tail light but also a stop light and turn signals. So be sure these are all hooked up properly. You can wire these into the same lights inside the car trunk usually. Check!
FOLLOW PRETTY MUCH THE SAME RULES IN LOADING A LUGGAGE TRAILER AS YOU DID WITH THE CAR: Try to distribute the weights as evenly as possible, with the slightly heavier things on the high side and toward the front. If you find this causes the rear of the car to sag too heavily and places too much weight on the car's rear tires or the trailer tongue, then shift some of the weight to the tail of the trailer. This should bring up the tongue. Whatever you do, don't overload it or stack the stuff too high so that it's top heavy and can easily overturn. Here again you'll have to make sure everything is well wrapped and covered or the rain will blow in from every angle, even suck in from the rear and underneath and soak your load. And again, everything must be securely tied or your tarp will catch the wind like a sail or things even bounce out.
IF YOU HAVE A CAMP TRAILER THE SAME RULES APPLY regarding distribution of your load‚ such as clothing, foodstuffs‚ and other gear. You will note here that the manufacturer has already put the heaviest things on the side of the trailer on the upside of the road, such as refrigerator, water tanks, sink‚ kitchen, bathroom, etc., leaving the right side mostly for closets, clothing cupboards, heater, etc., with usually a bed in the rear and a dinette in front, which makes another bed.
IT'S IMPORTANT TO STORE YOUR HEAVIEST GEAR ON THE FLOOR or as near the floor as possible, such as canned goods, sacks of grain, sugar, etc. underneath the rear bed and/or the dinette seats, as well as under the sofa if you have one, or even in the bottom or your closets or other lower drawers or cupboards. This will help keep your centre of gravity as close to the road and your trailer axle as possible, to prevent sidesway, fishtailing, or top-heavy overturning.
BUT OF COURSE, DON'T LOAD ANY TRAILER SO HEAVILY THAT IT'S RIDING ON THE AXLE! Take only the absolute necessities that you cannot live without daily and you'll eliminate much of this. Don't carry around a lot of books, magazines, and papers either: they're too heavy and you'll never have time to read them.
LIMIT YOUR LIBRARY TO YOUR BIBLE‚ MO LETTERS‚ NOTEBOOK, CONCORDANCE, AND HALLEY'S HANDBOOK. What else do you need? You'll never even get these all read. I carried a huge library around for years and never did have time to read even one of them‚ so I finally gave them all away. I now carry only my Bible and a few essential reference works—and this is all I need! Get rid of those books—they're the heaviest thing you can carry! You need canned goods more and other heavy staples that are just as heavy and a lot more useful.
TRY NOT TO TRAVEL WITH YOUR WATER TANKS FULL because that's another one of the heaviest things you can carry. Wait 'til your gas stop just before camping for the night or until you actually get the campground to fill up on water if it has water. You'll use most of your water in the evening, during the night, and in the morning while camped, and this will leave you with a lighter load for tomorrow's travel‚ with only a minimum of water in the tank necessary for use while en route, such as for preparing lunch, or drinking water. Which reminds me, nearly ALL LAWS PROHIBIT ANY PASSENGERS RIDING IN THE TRAILER as being too dangerous.
IT'S ALWAYS A GOOD IDEA TO CARRY A BOTTLE OF DRINKING WATER INSIDE THE CAR for the use of your passengers while riding‚ and also the now famous canopy for getting rid of it without stopping!—Especially if you have no camp trailer. This bottle of water can be lifesaver in case of breakdowns or your radiator running low on a hot Summer or desert road. It can help refresh both your engine and your people. Never travel without water! At least a one gallon lightweight plastic jug like chlorox or milk come in—preferably two: one for the radiator and one for you while travelling, and both are essential while camping.
IN THE CASE OF A WEAK HITCH, TONGUE, OR OVERLOADED CAR, put your heavier load to the rear of the trailer, so as to counter-balance it. And remember that heavily loaded tires need more air: The rear tires of a heavily loaded car should have at least 35 to 40 pounds cold, and your trailer tires about 40 to 45. And make mighty sure they're good tires able to take it, and don't drive over 50! If the trailer has a tendency to wag or sway even while driving at moderate speeds, you may have to readjust your load.
TOO MUCH LOAD IN THE TAIL OF THE TRAILER GIVES THE TAIL A TENDENCY TO WAG. At high speeds this can become so severe as to overturn the trailer. Slow down immediately if you notice it beginning to wag and correct the trouble, or it can become uncontrollable! Remember cars were not built to pull trailers so take it easy with this extra load, including stopping and starting‚ or you'll have trouble. Don't try to peel off or you may tear out your rear end, and don't try stop on a dime or you'll find out too late that you can't!—Plan ahead!—And don't forget to pack a good lunch to eat in the car while riding, with some coffee for your drivers.
A FEW LAST WORDS ABOUT THE CLOTHING YOU PACK: If you're going to a cold climate, be sure to carry long underwear, warm shoes, warm clothing, including a heavy jacket or coat and a sweater and some kind hat. Provisioners will probably need a warm wintersuit and a good pair of shoes with a topcoat.—Take gloves if possible. If going to a warm climate remember light clothing, shorts, bathing suit, thongs and sunglasses—and air mattresses make good floats!—Have fun!
27. BEFORE ROUNDING YOUR FLOCK, GIVE YOUR VEHICLE A FINAL CHECK: Be sure you have plenty of gas‚ oil, water, air, transmission fluid, brake fluid, battery water, and anti-freeze if going to a cold climate. Never travel on a low tank of gas—it doesn't cost any more to keep it full than to keep it empty, and you may find out that the next filling station is further than you thought—like a long walk! Which reminds me, try to carry one of those small one gallon gasoline cans for such emergencies. If it contains gas‚ keep it tightly capped and leakproof and away from heat, fires, sparks, electric contacts, etc. Wedge it rightside up somewhere in the trunk that's handy so it won't overturn and spill, and don't use a plastic can or jug, or the gasoline will melt it. Use only a metal can for gas or oil. Oil is cheaper by the two gallon can, and when it's empty you can use if for gasoline.
TRY NEVER TO BUY YOUR OIL AT FILLING STATIONS where they charge you extra for the service and as high a price for a quart, as you can buy a gallon for at Sears or Western Auto! But if you buy it by the two gallon can, you must carry a one quart can with for measuring‚ because over-filling with oil can cause almost as much damages as running too low.—And don't expect the serviceman to put it in for you, since you're not paying him for it. This is a do-it–yourself job, and don't stand in the way of his pumps while doing it, unless while he's actually pumping in the gas. It's usually better to drive out to the way and put it in afterwards. Just measure it while he's filling 'er up. You should be able to check your own transmission fluid also‚ but this must be done while the engine is idling. I like to check my own battery, brake fluid and tires, too, because this is more accurate and less annoyance to the filling station man. He'll appreciate it, and may not be as apt to complain about your crowd filling the bathroom.
WHATEVER YOU DO, DON'T LET YOUR SHEEP STAND AROUND IN HIS WAY OR IN THE WAY OF CUSTOMERS, the pumps, the driveways‚ or the office, while you're servicing your car, and heavy witnessing to customers is usually resented by the management.
NEVER OPERATE YOUR CAR MORE THAN ONE QUART LOW ON OIL, AND NEVER ADD A QUART UNLESS IT IS A QUART OR MORE LOW, and for good cars use good oil to help them stay good. For older cars, you can use a medium priced oil, but never use real cheap or reconstituted oil if you can help it, unless you're nearly flat broke, near your destination, and ready to say goodbye to your junker! Transmission fluids is cheaper at the store‚ too. Always carry a few extra cans if you can.
THE ONLY THING YOU SHOULD BUY AT A FILLING STATION IS GASOLINE, and alternate that between Ethyl, the first time‚ Regular on the second fillup, then Ethyl again, Regular again, etc. This gives your gas enough octane with the Ethyl for quick starting, especially in cold weather, and pep for the hills, while the Regular helps to lubricate the valves and keep the engine from running too hot. This advice is from all the best mechanics, including me. And watch that gas gauge on the pump!: I've had 'em fill me up with five gallons and then put ten gallons in the next car from the same pump and try to charge me for ten! Make sure you see exactly how much you're getting and don't pay for any more—and don't occupy the restroom too long! Keep out of his hair—especially if you have hair! Brake fluid can be bought cheaper at the store also‚ and make sure you keep your master cylinder filled to about a half an inch from the top. Also fill your own battery cells with water, usually to about an inch from the top. Battery and brake fluid should be checked before every trip, and at least once a week, along with transmission fluid.
OIL, WATER, AND AIR SHOULD BE CHECKED EVERY TIME YOU GET GAS, WITHOUT FAIL‚ no matter what you think! What you think doesn't matter—it's the actual condition of your car that counts, and this can change within minutes due to something unusual, unless you keep very close watch on these things to try to prevent trouble, or at least detect it in time to prevent more serious trouble. A stitch in time saves nine! Some of you guys have blown a lot of engines just because you didn't want to take the time to do a little checking.
BEFORE YOU TAKE OFF, USE YOUR OWN GAUGE TO CHECK YOUR TIRES: 35 in the front and 40 in the rear for a heavily loaded car, and 40 to 45 for a loaded trailer, and don't forget the spare. Give it at least 40. Be sure there are no badly worn spots, blisters‚ cuts or bruises‚ and that you have plenty of tread for traction and stopping: a new tire can cost you a lot less than the trouble an old tire can cause! If going to a cold country‚ try have snow tires on the rear, or pick up some chains. The highway patrol may not even let you proceed on some roads under certain snow conditions without them. Put your best rear tire on the right rear and your best front tire on the left front for reasons I haven't time to explain. Before you leave on your trip, you should also have had your engine tuned up: plugs cleaned and set or replaced, wiring checked or replaced, points cleaned or replaced and set, and ignition timed and battery terminals cleaned or cables replaced.—90% of engine failure are in the electrical ignition system, the simplest part of the car! Other major jobs need seldom doing.—And check your lights! and wiper!
ALSO, BE SURE THAT ALL THE WINDOWS ARE IN AND OPERATING for your protection and health and so you can lock your car with all that gear in it. An open window can give somebody a cold, and the law doesn't allow boards in car windows, and it could cause you to lose some valuables. Don't drive a car without windows in good condition.
BE SURE ALSO TO CHECK THE BRAKES and the emergency brake before leaving on a trip. These are usually very simple to adjust and it only takes a few minutes. If they're in such bad shape that they can't be adjusted, don't leave until you have them fixed, meaning usually the replacement of brake linings, which is not too expensive, if you buy the kit and do it yourself—but don't do that unless you know how—because it usually requires the total removal of the wheels and is a fairly complicated job with delicate adjustments and you could injure some of the parts or brake cylinder seals, which also may have to be replaced at more expense. Let the man that knows how, do the job! If that's you, fine. If not, provision it or pay to have it done—you'll save time and money in the long run, and good brakes are absolutely essential for safety‚ to save the lives of your whole team, especially with a heavy load, as well as the lives of others.
THIS ALSO INCLUDES YOUR TRAILER BRAKES, if your little camp trailer is big enough to have 'em. If so‚ they are required and must be hooked up and operating properly according to law and for your own safety. These are usually electrical, and not too difficult to hook up, operating with a special lever which you attach to the steering column below the steering wheel, and operate by hand. It's a good idea, by the way, when on the road, to always start slowing down by using your trailer brakes first, and then applying your car foot brake as needed to finish the job. When towing a trailer that has brakes, never apply your car brakes first, or if the trailer is heavy enough this could cause your whole rig to jack–knife, especially on slippery pavements. REMEMBER, APPLY TRAILER BRAKES FIRST, always, and while holding them on, then apply your car brakes. This is also better for your hitch. It is also better for your car brakes, which get a lot more use than your trailer brakes, so use those trailer brakes as much as you can while on the road, because you'll still be using your car brakes while running around while your trailer is parked somewhere‚ its brakes unused. Use those trailer brakes! Some small lightweight camp trailers don't have them, such as those under 1,000 to 1500 pounds, in which case they're not required—but you'd be better off if they were and did. Car brakes weren't made to handle trailers either. So take it easy and drive very cautiously if your trailer has no brakes, and this is all the more reason for your car to have brakes in excellent condition.
28. BY THE WAY, REMEMBER THAT BUMPER HITCHES WERE NOT BUILT FOR HOUSE TRAILERS. If you are pulling a camp trailer‚ have a good welder build you a good hitch that's welded directly to the frame, not just clamped to the bumper! And if your trailer tongue seems to be quite weak and bends too much, you can have it strengthened and straightened by a good welder also by jacking up the front of the trailer by its frame with the car attached. This will straighten out the tongue so that the bottom of it should parallel the bottom of the trailer chassis. Then your welder can weld some heavy channel iron braces to the bottom of the tongue and bottom of the chassis, where the tongue meets the chassis. This will straighten, stiffen and strengthen the weakest point of most trailers. I've had to do this with several trailers which were not built strong enough at this point, especially if heavily loaded. I've had several of them crack at these points, this elbow of the tongue where it's fastened to the chassis, and on one trailer, I had one break off completely on one side just as we pulled it into the Ranch, thank God! If this had happened on the road, it could have been disastrous, so check this meticulously with a bright light.
FINE CRACKS OR BENDING ARE A BAD SIGN, because this is where the greatest strain is on your entire trailer chassis, the part that takes the worst beating, bouncing up and down on the road with all that load battering at it constantly. Strips of one or two inch channel iron, each two or three feet long, welded to the bottom of the tongue and chassis at this point usually remedies the trouble permanently. I've never yet found a trailer built strong enough at this point for constant travel and heavy loads. I believe we've had to do this to every trailer we ever owned, so be sure to check it and have this done if necessary. Better safe than sorry!
29. ALSO, BE VERY SURE THAT THE BALL OF YOUR HITCH IS EXACTLY THE RIGHT SIZE FOR THE SOCKET OF THE TRAILER HITCH, and that the clamp or lock which locks it onto the ball is working properly, or you could lose the trailer and cause some terrible accident. The socket must not be loose on the ball, or have any play‚ or on a bad bump it could bounce off, and the lock must lock it on tight‚ or it will bounce off! In any case, be sure you have a safety chain from car to trailer!
30. FOR A FINAL CHECK BEFORE PULLING OUT‚ AND EVERY TIME WE STOP FOR GAS ON THE ROAD, I ALWAYS GET DOWN ON MY HANDS AND KNEES, AND LOOK UNDER THE VEHICLE, scrutinising everything very prayerfully. Watch for oil dripping from the oil pan or bearings, or transmission, or fluid dripping from the transmission, or water dripping from the radiator, or gasoline dripping from the fuel pump or gas tank, or gas line, or brake fluid dripping from the brake cylinders or lines—any of these could be signs of potentially serious trouble which should be corrected immediately if possible. Again, a stitch in time saves nine, and an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. IT'S BETTER TO CATCH A PROBLEM BEFORE IT GETS TOO SERIOUS, instead of waiting till everything falls apart. When you stop for gas, check the pavement under your car for any signs of any kind of dripping of any of these fluids. A few drops are not necessarily serious and are fairly common to most cars‚ especially old ones, but a tiny puddle could mean trouble: A bad leak in your oil pan or main bearing seals could cause your oil to run so low under pressure, as to burn up your engine. A bad transmission leak can burn that up, too. A bad radiator can also burn up the engine—and I mean total it. My boys left the ranch in the Rambler one morning with no water in the radiator, and it only took six miles to completely burn up the engine, bringing it to a total stop, and cost five hundred dollars to be replaced! Don't let it happen to you! This could happen from a slow leak overnight‚ or draining the radiator on a cold night to prevent freezing, instead of getting anti-freeze, and then forgetting to fill it in the morning! This is why you should never start your car and take off on any day, anywhere, without at least checking your water, oil, transmission, and tires.
RUNNING ON A LOW TIRE CAN RUIN IT COMPLETELY. It doesn't have to be all the way flat, just low, to total it. It causes the sidewalls to break down, the cords to rip loose, and if you hit the slightest object, like a small rock, it could permanently injure the tire and make it totally useless‚ even a brand new tire—all because you were too lazy even to look at your tires before your climbed in your car. You don't even need a tire gauge to notice a tire that's dangerously low. You can run slowly on a low tire for maybe two or three miles, preferably only two or three blocks, to the nearest gas station to have it filled to proper pressure‚ or better yet, repaired. However, if it's only a slow leak and you're in a hurry, just keep checking it and refilling it until you have time to get it fixed. The sooner, the better. BUT NEVER RUN ONE FOOT ON A TOTALLY FLAT TIRE‚ or you could completely run it by just a partial turn of the wheel. If it's a slow leak and you can pump it up with a hand pump—which is another tool you should always have with you for just such emergencies—get at least 20 or 25 pounds into it and drive to the nearest filling station to get it fixed. Either that, or jack it up and put on your spare, and fix the tire or have it fixed at your earliest opportunity. If you haven't much money, which you probably won't, you'd better learn how to repair your own tires with rubber plugs or patches: Plugs for tubeless punctures; patches, for tube punctures, and maybe carry a boot or two for small breaks. These can make a tire last a lot longer in emergencies and save you money, and even time, if you're not near a station when you get that flat. Of course, there's nothing you can do for a blowout except stop immediately and put on your spare before you ruin your rim. Driving a flat can not only ruin a tire, but also a fifteen dollar rim—so don't do it! Fix it!—Or get it fixed!
31. FOR THOSE WHO HAVEN'T GOT THE STRENGTH FOR A HAND TIRE PUMP, THERE'S A NEW LITTLE GADGET CALLED THE AUTOMATIC TIRE PUMP, which works off a spark plug hole by the compression of the engine, and pumps up a tire very quickly. But it takes enough mechanical know how to be able to remove a sparkplug and insert the pump connector, which you may not know how to do. So I would suggest for you another new little gadget which costs a couple dollars: a simple little can of compressed gas and a fluid which temporarily seals your leak and blows up your tire enough to get to the filling station and get it fixed. But of course a hand pump, which also only costs a couple of dollars, is the simplest, most reliable, most economical and longest lasting, and will pump up many tires with the exercise of a little elbow grease and sweat at the rate of about five to ten strokes to the pound of air pressure. This, along with a couple tire irons and an inner tube and a patching kit could actually save you both time and money in the long run when stranded out by the road with a flat and no spare‚ which is a situation you should never let yourself get into in the first place. But if it should happen, you could fix it yourself this way and save yourself from hitchhiking to town with a car wheel in your hand, which most motorists don't relish.
IF DRIVING IN OR TO A COLD CLIMATE, BE SURE YOU HAVE A CAR HEATER, or you'll freeze. Check it before leaving and make sure it's operating properly. Also a car radio could be very valuable for getting the news, weather, etc. or a national emergency. Also make sure your exhaust doesn't leak!
32. WHILE LOOKING UNDER YOUR VEHICLE, ALSO CHECK FOR ANYTHING WHICH LOOKS LOOSE: wires, bolts, shocks, shackles‚ muffler, tailpipe, bumper, etc. Also, whenever the hood is up and you're checking oil and water, etc. always look around for loose items here, also. I've caught many a part just ready to fall off, by this kind of constant checking. The vibration of travel has a tendency to loosen bolts and nuts and wires, etc.‚ but if you keep a careful check you can usually catch them before it happens. If they fall off on the road while travelling, as they're most likely to do, you might not only damage the part or lose it entirely and cause serious delay and expensive repairs, but falling parts can also damage other parts of your vehicle such as the tires, gas tank etc. as well as possibly causing serious damage or an accident to a vehicle behind you. So keep checking for loose parts, frequently using your hand to jiggle the various parts to see if they are loose, when their looseness may not even be visible to the eye. ANYTHING ON AN AUTOMOBILE IS SUPPOSED TO BE BOLTED OR FASTENED SECURELY and tightly so it can't move or rattle. If it does, it should be fastened or tightened, and this again, can save you a lot of grief as well as unnecessary noise. Again, a stitch in time saves nine, and a ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. A few ounces of proper maintenance and constant checking of your vehicle will save you many pounds of expensive repairs and costly delays. It's just being faithful stewards, Brothers and Sisters!
33. LAST BUT NOT LEAST‚ BEFORE YOU GO, BE SURE YOUR VEHICLE IS PROPERLY LUBRICATED or completely greased. You can do this with a small hand grease gun yourself, if you know how, or have a lubrication chart for your vehicle, such as is usually found in most motor manuals, or your vehicle's handbook‚ if you have one. If not, the principal points to remember are: all the various moving parts of the chassis, such as the various steering knuckles and moving joints of the steering mechanisms, from the worm gear in the bottom of the steering column to the tie rods and kingpins attached to the wheels—wherever you find a grease fitting give it a shot until you see the grease oozing out between the joints. You'll usually find grease fittings on the spring shackles also, sometimes the shocks and even the universal joints and spline of the driveshaft. And while underneath the vehicle, be sure to check the grease level in your differential—that round bulging gear box in the middle of the rear axle. Remove the small metal plug with a wrench, and if oil runs out of the hole and/or if you can stick your finger in it and touch oil just slightly below the level of the hole inside, it's OK. Otherwise you should fill it to the hole level with the type of grease specified for your particular vehicle's differential, usually a gear lubricant of SAE 90 weight. If you don't have this, or any way to put it in, which usually requires a special pump‚ you'd better get it done at the filling station where they're usually happy to oblige you for only the price of the grease consumed, which is charged at so much a pound.
OR YOU CAN GET THE FILLING STATION TO DO THE WHOLE JOB FOR YOU, of greasing everything‚ for a small fee, as a rule—and it's worth it.—Only, be sure to watch them and check your chart as they do it to make sure they hit everything. Otherwise‚ they're inclined to cut corners, if in a hurry, and miss a few important spots, which could be serious, if neglected too long. Your clutch and brake pedals also usually each have a grease fitting accessible from underneath, while you're lubricating the front end; and all of your brake linkage should have a couple drops of light engine oil from a squirt can at each link, including the linkage of both foot and hand brakes. IF YOUR VEHICLE IS HAND SHIFTED, you may also find a grease fitting on the rod join below that connects it to the transmission, if the lever is on the steering column. Otherwise, if it's "four-on—the—floor", the grease fitting is probably at the base of the stick or gearshift lever and accessible from above in the driver's compartment. The worm gear is in a metal box bulge at the bottom end of the steering column. Remove the little screw plug on top of the box and make sure the oil level is covering the worm gear. If not, you can add some SAE 90, the same stuff you put in the transmission.
IF YOUR STEERING WHEEL SEEMS A LITTLE LOOSE with more than two or three inches play when moving it back and forth while standing still, either this gear is too worn or should be tightened, or your steering linkage is worn, and some of its joints or bushings may have to be replaced. If it's bad enough to shimmy at certain speeds while driving‚ this looseness has become dangerous and must be repaired immediately. If you don't know how to do it‚ take it to a frontend man who does. A shimmy is great on some front ends, but not on your cars—it can bring disaster. Of course‚ some girls can too—so watch out for the shimmies!
JUST REMEMBER, NEARLY ALL HOLES NEED LUBRICATION, if not already well lubricated. Fill 'em up, Boys!—And make sure it works good. Remember, all moving parts always require lubrication‚ and after lubricating, it's usually a good idea to move it back and forth to make sure it's working smoothly. A couple drops of light engine oil in her distributor up front will also make her spark better! Have fun!—Now you're done!
IF YOU HAVE POWER STEERING, that's extra, and you'll have to keep that hole filled, too. Otherwise, everytime you turn'er, she'll squeal, and that squeal means she needs more fluid—so pour it on‚ Man! A few drops of motor oil on all of her other moving parts will help everything work better, too: door latches, hinges, locks, hood hinges and latches, window cranks, etc. This will make her operate more quietly, too‚ without all that embarrassing squeaking, creaking, and shrieking and squealing. It also makes for easier opening and closing.
THE OIL FILTER CARTRIDGE SHOULD ALSO BE REPLACED about every four or five thousand miles, or, in other words, about every other oil change, as you should change your engine oil at least every two or three thousand miles. You can do this yourself, but it's easier to let the filling station man do it, which he'll do for free if you buy the filter from him. If your normal oil capacity is five quarts, it may take six after changing a filter. Be sure to run your engine a little after changing filters to make sure the filter is not leaking and then turn off your engine and check your oil level again to see if you need to add that sixth quart. Do not overfill beyond the full mark.
AND REMEMBER, WHEN CHECKING TRANSMISSION FLUID, which is another dipstick‚ the engine must be running, idling‚ to get the correct level! Your engine and transmission can both operate normally even if either is as much as a quart low, but never run them lower than that.
IF YOU'RE DRIVING AN OLD CAR WITH AN OLD WORN-OUT ENGINE that is using oil rapidly or "blowing" oil, it's best to drive it one quart low on engine oil: that way it won't blow so much oil and use it so rapidly. If your engine is in really bad shape and using as much as a quart of oil every couple hundred miles, it probably means you need a major engine overhaul, or a new one, either of which could cost you quite a bit if you pay to have it done. This usually means new rings, bearings, valves, etc., which requires a complete dismantling of the engine and several days time and which money and time you may not have on the road. So you may find it easier and cheaper just to keep pouring in the oil until you get where you're going and can afford an overhaul or a new or rebuilt engine, or can do it yourself, if you know how—but you'd better know how. Rebuilding or overhauling an engine is a very highly technical job, and a major one requiring all kinds of tools and special equipment, including possibly even an engine hoist to remove the engine from the car. So don't attempt it yourself unless you're an expert mechanic and have done it before with success and have a good helper besides and lots of time and money and a good place to do it in.
SO DON'T OVERHAUL'ER YOURSELF, BOYS, UNLESS YOU KNOW WHAT YOU'RE DOING!—And even removing and old engine and installing a new or rebuilt one that someone else has overhauled for you is still a job for experts. Don't try it unless you're an expert mechanic with lots of experience. Just tune it up the best you can and keep pouring in the oil and gas until you can afford another one. Gas and oil are actually the lowest expense of operating a car.—Maintenance and repairs are your biggest expense—plus insurance and depreciation.—Which is why transportation is the biggest expense of the average American family—including ours! And with us, communication is about second, with all those calls you're running up on your long distance bills‚ because you're too lazy and impatient to write letters. But when all your vehicles are broken down and your telephone cut off—both for lack of caution and care—and you have to walk and write letters, you'll amazed at how much money it's gonna save you! Housing and food are the least of our worries—the Lord never fails to supply these necessities. But extravagant and careless misuse of transportation and communication can break you up in business and leave you bankrupt!
34. TUNE-UP TIPS: If either before leaving, or while on the road, your vehicle is not functioning properly‚ such as hard starting, rough idling or running, missing‚ jerking, poor on power, backfiring, slow on pick-up, etc., this usually means the simplest of all difficulties to remedy: Ignition trouble, which can usually be corrected very easily, some of them even by an amateur with only a little mechanical knowhow and very few tools.
35. CLEANING THE PLUGS: This is usually the first and easiest job for the amateur, where most of us mechanics began, besides fixing flat tires—but you'll need a special spark plug wrench that will fit the plugs of your particular engine, and a feeler gauge to set the gaps after cleaning.
A FOULED PLUG IS THE COMMONEST CAUSE OF A MISS, or a stumbling engine. If a plug can't fire, or fires poorly‚ it will cause that cylinder to lose power, or miss entirely, which makes the whole engine run poorly, miss‚ stumble, idle roughly, and be poor on power. One or more fouled plugs and missing cylinders can really slow you down and cause your engine to stall frequently, as well as waste a lot of gasoline, and this can be caused by worn rings pumping oil, so that you'll have to clean the plugs often on an old worn engine.
36. REMOVE EACH PLUG BY TURNING YOUR PLUG WRENCH COUNTER-CLOCKWISE FIRMLY BUT GENTLY to prevent breaking the porcelain insulator, or the white china part of the plug. If broken‚ the plug is no good, or even if cracked, sometimes with such a fine-line crack that it cannot be detected by the naked eye‚ and only by testing on a machine, it will have to be thrown away and replaced with a new plug. BEFORE REMOVING ANY OF THE PLUGS, ALL DIRT AROUND THE HOLES SHOULD BE REMOVED by blowing or brushing so it will not fall into the engine and cause damage after the plug is removed. And never try to do this job on a hot engine, or you'll burn yourself. A cool engine is always easier to work on. When you have removed the plug, wipe its points clean, the two metal contacts in its base, and gently dig out any dirt or sludge with the tip of a knife or small screwdriver, cautious again not to break the porcelain insulator. Then file very slightly and gently the tips of the contact points—even a fingernail file will do—by running the file back and forth between the points a few times, just enough to clean them. THEN CHECK THE GAP BETWEEN THE POINTS with your feeler gauge and adjust to the exact width recommended for your particular vehicle. You can measure with your feeler gauge by drawing it between the points so that it is touching both with only a slight drag. Believe it or not, if you even have no feeler gauge, this gap is usually about the thickness of a fingernail file, and your plug will probably operate OK at that gap until you get where you can get a gauge. If the gap is too large or small, bend the outer contact very slightly and gently‚ whichever way it needs to go, by using the notch for this purpose on your spark plug feeler gauge. Again, if you're without such a tool, you can help close the gap by gently tapping it on something until it's the right width or using a pair of needle-nose pliers to open it slightly, or even by very gently pushing your fingernail file between the points, careful not to apply too much pressure on the centre contact or you can break a little piece off its surrounding white porcelain insulator, which will render the plug totally useless. If some material is hardened or burned onto the points‚ you may have to scrape it off with the blade of a knife. If the centrepoint is burned down too far, replace the plug with a new one as soon as you can.
37. TO INSTALL THE PLUGS: If you have removed the plugs, cleaned, and reinstalled them one by one, you will have no problems, as you'll only have one wire off at a time. But if you did a wholesale job by pulling off all the wires at once‚ and didn't number them or mark them so that you know which wire goes to which plug, you are in a mess, and worse off than you were before. You may be able to tell which wire goes to which plug by the length of the wires, or the way they naturally hang, but this is very uncertain, and if you didn't mark the wires, you may have to have a mechanic figure it out for you‚ as this operation requires knowing the engine firing order and the numbering of the cylinders and which is the number one contact on the distributor, etc, which is quite a little task!
SO I WARN YOU, IF YOU'RE GONNA PULL OFF ALL THE WIRES AT ONCE, BE SURE TO MARK OR NUMBER THEM so you'll know which cylinder to attach them to when replacing them. Anyhow, gently screw each plug into its hole, cautious not to strip the threads. If you have cleaned the plug properly‚ you should be able to screw it into its hole a few turns with your fingers by feeling. Screwing plugs into holes by finger feeling gently and lovingly always makes her work better, Boys! When you have screwed them in finger tight, then use your plug wrench to tighten them securely—but not too tight, or you may break the plug, or make it very difficult to remove again. WHEN YOU HAVE THE PLUG SCREWED TIGHTLY INTO ITS HOLE, push the ignition wire that belongs to that plug firmly back onto the top of the plug so it makes a good contact‚ to give it plenty of power to shoot plenty of juice into 'er: A poor connection means poor power, little or no juice, and little or no fire, which means she won't run very good, Boys, and neither of you will be happy about that!—And if you get your wires crossed or mixed up‚ she probably won't run at all. OLD, CRACKED WIRING OR BAD CONNECTORS CAN ALSO SHORT OUT AND CAUSE MISFIRING or no firing at all and bad missing, so replace any bad wires or connectors, or all the spark plug wires, if necessary. This will only cost a few dollars and is certainly worth it for a better running engine!
38. THE POINTS: If cleaning the plugs and replacing wires does not solve your problem, try cleaning the points. These are found inside the distributor to which the plug wires are attached. Do not remove the wires from the distributor cap, but merely pry loose the two clamps with the point of a screwdriver‚ which removes the cap with the wires still attached. Push the cap and its wires out of your way or have someone hold it out of your way while you run your nailfile two or three strokes between the little round breaker points inside the distributor, gently to clean. Replace cap and clamps in same position, and make sure all wires are pushed firmly into the cap, for good contact. As usual, the creations of man are mere imitations of the creations of God, and if you want her engine to fire properly, you're gonna have to push these male wires hard into these female holes to make a good connection, and pour in the juice! Hallelujah! Gotta make those cylinders explode to make her purr properly!
39. SETTING THE POINTS: If cleaning them hasn't done it‚ you may have to set them, or even replace them. In either case, you still have to set the gap of either the old or new points by means of a feeler gauge. Kick the engine over by just touching the starter a few times, but not starting the engine‚ with the distributor open‚ as before, until you see the points are open at their widest. You can be sure of this by making sure that the little tit on the moving breaker point which rides on the distributor cam shaft has come to rest exactly on top of one of the peaks of the cam. In this position, the points are their widest opening. CHECK THIS GAP WITH YOUR FEELER GAUGE, and if too wide or too narrow, loosen the set screw of the moving point and turn the other setting screw with your screwdriver until your feeler gauge feels a slight drag when run between the two points. Be sure you're using a feeler of the right size, recommended for setting the points of your particular engine. Again, if you have no feeler gauge, you can set these temporarily, approximately, with the thickness of your nail file, until you're able to get a gauge and set them exactly. When you think you have the gap just right, tighten the other set screw to keep it that way. Replace the cap and clamps, and try 'er again. IF this still doesn't correct your trouble, you may have to adjust the timing of the engine.
40. TIMING: To adjust timing, you must have a timing light, which is a small strobe light made for this purpose and which you can either borrow from a neighbour or buy from the auto store. Remove the ignition wire end from the number one plug, and be sure you know it's number one‚ either by asking the neighbour, or phoning a garage, or checking a chart of your engine in an auto manual. On the average eight cylinder engine it is usually the first plug on the left side of the engine nearest the radiator as you face forward. Plug the ignition wire end into the socket made for it at the end of one of the timing light wires and push the other connector on the end of the other timing light wire onto the top of the spark plug, the number one plug. Before you start the engine, find out where the timing markings are on the flywheel of your particular engine by either a personal inspection or checking a chart in a motor manual or asking somebody who knows. Also find the stationary pointer, usually just above the flywheel, the point of which must coincide with the proper mark on the flywheel, as the number one plug fires, as indicated by the flash of light focused on it by your timing light while the engine is idling. BE SURE YOU DON'T GET YOUR HEAD, HAIR‚ HANDS, OR TIMING LIGHT WIRES TANGLED UP IN THE FAN, FAN BELTS, OR PULLEY WHEELS while so doing, or you have had it! Timing can be a dangerous job because the engine has to be idling while you're doing it, and you have to hold your light, hand and head in such a position as to be able to see the pointer and the markings which are very close to the fan‚ cables and pulleys. Don't start the engine until you're sure you're clear of all these, or you could lose a hand, a finger, your hair, scalp, or at least, your timing light or one of its wires!—And be sure your other hand is not resting on any other part of the engine which might get too hot or shock you, or interfere with its operation in some way. JUST BEFORE STARTING THE ENGINE, SLIGHTLY LOOSEN THE SET SCREW or bolt at the base of the distributor where it's attached to the engine so that you can rotate the distributor body very slightly just a fraction of an inch, in either direction‚ while the engine is idling and you're watching the pointer and markings in the light of your timing light. BEFORE STARTING THE ENGINE, YOU SHOULD ALSO MARK WITH A PIECE OF CHALK THE CORRECT MARK ON THE FLYWHEEL for timing your particular engine. Usually there will be a zero, then a fraction of an inch from this possibly a 2.5 degree mark, a five degree mark, and a ten degree mark, each only about a quarter of an inch apart. Mark the one with white chalk or a little white paint or even some white elmer's glue which corresponds to the right degree of timing for your particular engine: usually 2.5 to five degrees for six cylinder engines‚ and seven to ten degrees for eight cylinder engines. NOW START THE ENGINE; with one hand holding the timing light focused on the pointer just above where the marking should be, you should be able to see the marks in the flashes of your timing light. With your other hand, turn the distributor slightly until the proper mark is directly in line with the point of the pointer. Then hold the distributor in that exact position while you tighten its set screw or bolt. Then you'll have to set the points again. Engine must be warm for both these adjustments.
41. READY TO ROLL: With you and your car properly licensed and in good condition, and with all the necessary papers and clearance from the Colony shepherd, checked, packed, passengers loaded, you should be almost ready to roll. Start the engine, and while it's warming up for at least five minutes, have prayer with your team. Never drive off with a cold engine, or a cold heart. Always warm up both with the fire necessary—the fire of the Spirit for you, and the firing of the engine for the car. Never start without both. BEFORE YOU PULL OUT‚ CHECK ALL YOU GAUGES and make sure everything is operating properly. Having just started the engine, your generator indicator on the dashboard should show that the generator is charging, which on some means no red light, and on those with an actual gauge‚ a charging rate of at least 15 to 30 amps. Later, as you drive and the battery becomes charged up again, this charging rate should recede to about five amps, or even zero, if everything is working properly. But if it shows zero, or even a discharge or a red light right after starting the engine, something is wrong!—And do not go until it's fixed‚ or you may get stuck out somewhere soon where you can't fix it.
42. THE GENERATOR: This is a little motor attached to your engine which charges your battery so it can run the engine and your lights. If it's not operating properly, your lights will start getting dim and your engine will soon stop firing‚ the car will come to a stop, and your battery will be dead, and you'll be stranded by the side of the road somewhere. This is how important it is to keep an eye on that little generator indicator, because a stitch in time can often save nine. A generator which is charging poorly, or not charging at all, or even discharging, can soon bring your whole trip to a stop.
IF YOU SEEM TO BE HAVING GENERATOR TROUBLE, the first thing to do is turn off the engine, get out, open the hood‚ and push on the fan belt with your finger, or thumb. Your motor may have one or two of these‚ and they are the little leather belts which you can plainly see going around a wheel attached to the back of the fan, and another wheel attached to the generator, and usually another wheel attached to the water pump.
IF THESE BELTS ARE LOOSE, IT CAN CAUSE YOUR GENERATOR NOT TO CHARGE PROPERLY and your engine to overheat because the belts are not operating the water pump and fan properly. Push on these belts with your thumb about half way between a couple of these pulley wheels. If the belt is so loose that you can push it in more than half an inch, it's too loose, and you either need to tighten them or get new belts. If they're badly cracked and worn and tightening doesn't correct the trouble because they're stretched, get new belts immediately, because a broken or worn fan belt can burn up a good engine through overheating, so that it's a total loss, as well as causing you generator and battery trouble. If the belts are in good shape and merely need tightening, slightly loosen the bolts on the generator, and tilt it out further until the belts are tight and then re-tighten all the bolts on the generator while holding it firmly in this position with a crowbar, tire tool, or something wedged between it and the engine. If your belts are good, and tight, and this was the trouble, your generator indicator should now show a charge or no red light, and your engine should cool down if it's been overheating.
43. IF THIS WAS NOT THE TROUBLE, and you're still having difficulty, and the generator indicator still does not show a charge, it could be that your voltage regulator points are burned stuck, or gone bad. This is usually a little black box. less than 3x5 size, and about as thick as your Bible‚ somewhere in the engine compartment, usually not far from the generator and to which three or four wires attached, one or two of them running to your generator‚ that round motor with the pulley wheel which the fan belts go round. If this is your trouble, while the engine is idling, tap the voltage regulator box sharply with the handle of your screwdriver. Sometimes this causes the points to open‚ and the regulator and generator to operate properly again.—But I would advise you to get a new regulator as soon as possible. A garage will install it for you.
44. IF BRISKLY TAPPING THE REGULATOR DOESN'T MAKE THE GENERATOR START CHARGING, then shut off the engine and make sure all wiring connections on both the generator and the regulator are tight—no loose wires or connectors. Use a screwdriver for this usually, only be very sure not to touch any two of the contacts at the same time with your screwdriver, or you may short out and ruin the regulator. If tightening the fan belts or tapping the regulator or tightening these wiring connections still doesn't do it, you probably need a new generator which will cost you a bit less for a rebuilt one than for a new one, and a few dollars more to have it installed.
45. WHAT IF YOUR VEHICLE WON'T EVEN START? If the starter's turning it over briskly and it still doesn't start, check the following: (1) Make sure you're not out of gasoline. (2) Check the ignition system by removing one wire from the top of a spark plug, and holding it about a quarter of an inch from the top of the plug while someone turns on the ignition key and cranks the engine or turns it over with the starter for a few turns. If there is no spark between the end of the wire and the top of the plug, you have ignition problems: such as a broken of loose wire somewhere, bad distributor condenser, broken distributor rotor, loose distributor cap, or several other things. Check what you can‚ and if you still can't get it to fire or spark‚ call a mechanic‚ if you don't know how to fix it!
46. IF YOU DO GET A GOOD REGULAR SPARK FROM THE WIRE TO THE PLUG, your problem is probably not ignition, but possibly in the fuel system. (3)Remove the carburetor air cleaner, that big round thing on top of the carburetor, which is usually right on top of your engine and which can usually be loosened by loosening one set screw at its base or a wing nut on top. Then, while you're looking down into the carburetor, have somebody push the gas pedal several times. If you see little squirts or spurts of gasoline and gas vapour inside the carburetor‚ you're getting gasoline to the carburetor, so it's probably some other problem such as poor compression, which can't be fixed without an engine overhaul.
47. BUT IF YOU CAN'T SEE GASOLINE IN THE CARBURETOR, IT COULD BE YOUR FUEL PUMP or gasoline filter. Change the filter first, and while you have the filter off (a little round gadget on the fuel line between the carburetor and the fuel pump which you can change yourself if you're smart), point the open end of the fuel line from the fuel pump away from the engine and have someone turn the engine over a time or two. If no gas squirts from the tube, you need a new fuel pump.
48. IF THE FUEL PUMP IS WORKING‚ and gas does spurt from the tube, install the new filter, making sure it's in the right direction and try starting the engine again. If this still doesn't do it, you'd better call a mechanic.
IF YOUR TROUBLE IS THAT THE ENGINE WON'T EVEN TURN OVER when you turn on or step on the starter and absolutely nothing happens, then check your battery with a battery gauge, hydrometer, or by turning on your headlights. If these are very dim or don't go on at all, you battery needs charging. If the battery won't charge, you need a new one. It is usually installed free at any filling station who will sell it to you.
49. IF THE BATTERY SEEMS IN GOOD SHAPE, headlights bright‚ then check your battery cables and terminals and make sure they're all clean and tight, both where they're connected to the battery‚ to the engine, and to the starter. If when you hit the starter button still nothing happens and the engine won't turn over, the trouble may be in the starter solenoid, a little round gadget usually attached to the starter, or close by in the engine compartment. Have someone tap it, rapping it sharply with the butt of a screwdriver while you're stepping on the starter, or take the two handles of a pair of pliers and short out the solenoid by touching each handle to each of its two terminals. If the starter then operates, you need a new starter solenoid.
50. SOMETIMES YOU MAY EVEN FIND A LOOSE WIRE TO THE IGNITION key socket, or lock. But if the tightening and cleaning of all these wires and their terminals and the shorting out of the solenoid‚ etc. still won't make the starter turn over, you probably need a new starter.
51. IF AFTER ALL THESE TESTS, AND THE CRANKING SYSTEM IS WORKING OK, the ignition is sparkling OK, and you're getting plenty of gas to the engine, showing the fuel system is OK, it could be, and probably is, that your engine is so worn and its compression so poor that it will only kick a few times, but not actually start, so probably what you need is a big expensive complete engine overhaul, which will take days, lots of money, and expert mechanics. But don't get discouraged and forget the whole idea of going—just ask, and pray for another vehicle and leave the old one behind for repairs!—Repack, reload, and try again!—God bless you!
52. NOW THAT YOUR LITTLE TEAM HAS HAD PRAYER while the engine is warming up‚ it would be a good idea to get out of your vehicle one more time and look underneath it and the tires. You may still find something loose or leaking which you hadn't noticed before she was warmed up and vibrating, or you may find something that has just rolled underneath the car or in front of one of the tires, like a pop bottle or sharp rock, or part of somebody's gear they forgot to pick up. This last minute check underneath the vehicle and its tires can save you lots of grief. I've found everything from bottles to four-by-fours, or somebody's glasses lying right in the path of my tires just before pulling out; or, that suddenly under the warm pressure of the heated engine she'd sprung an oil or water leak. Again‚ a stitch in time saves nine and if you catch some of these things before they happen or before they get worse, you can save yourself a lot of trouble. I've even known kids to purposely put pop bottles under my tires just to hear 'em pop when I drove off‚ and in the hopes it might give me a flat, too! Some of the Devil's little demons have a wicked enjoyment of evil and love to laugh at your calamity—so it pays to be on your guard!
53. PULLING OUT: Before you actually throw'er in gear and start pulling out, be sure to not only look in your rear view mirror, but even stick your head out the window if necessary to make sure the coast is clear. Wait for other vehicles to pass by so you can pull out in the clear without having to make other vehicles slow down or stop for you. If you're backing out from a spot such as angle parking with a carload of people and luggage, don't trust your own limited vision‚ especially in backing a large vehicle, such as a bus or truck or camper or van: Have someone get out and stand on your side of the vehicle where you can see him, but just to the rear or your vehicle‚ and not in its path, but where your rear lookout can have a clear view of the street in both directions and signal you when it's clear to back. This is also particularly important when there are lots of pedestrians around of unexpected vehicles coming from unexpected directions or poles or posts or signs or gas pumps, or somebody's bicycle or a little child or something else you couldn't possibly see, even with two rear-view mirrors. NEVER BACK BLIND! You may think you have lots of faith‚ but this is one place where it pays to go by sight! Many accidents and tragedies could have been averted if people had followed this rule. In a small unloaded car with clear vision in all directions you can probably back out without help, but in a crowded, loaded, or oversize vehicle where your vision is definitely obstructed or limited, always use someone for a rear-view lookout‚ or a back out watchout. Don't guess! Make sure!
54. OOPS!—BEFORE YOU PULL OUT ALSO BE SURE YOU HAVE YOUR MAP, marked with your route and the directions of how to get on that route and our list of instructions of how to keep in contact with home base or your destination, what to do in case of emergency, who to contact, and a list of possible contacts or stopovers on your way, with names, addresses, etc. Every team member should have at least a little 3x5 filing card with the name and address of your destination and its phone number just in case he gets lost or left accidentally while en route.—Either that or the home base phone number to contact in case of emergency.
IF YOU GET LOST OR SEPARATED from each other and all other efforts to find each other have failed, find a place where you can wait at a telephone and call in and report your location and your phone number. When the rest of the party phones in to report your loss, your home base can tell them where you are, and then stay put and don't move so they can be sure and find you. The worst thing to do is to keep going from place to place so that you're both going around in circles looking for each other. If you were in the bathroom of the filling station and they took off without noticing you were missing‚ try to wait a little while before phoning, hoping somebody in your vehicle will wake up and notice you're not there. One of the easiest ways to get lost is like Jesus did: when you have two or more vehicles or parties travelling together and each thinks you're with the other one. To prevent this, the leader of your caravan should always count his team before allowing any vehicle to take off and make sure they're all there. Each driver should be held responsible for his own passengers and report any missing.
55. DON'T PEEL OFF!—OR YOU CAN LEAVE A HALF A DOLLAR'S WORTH OF RUBBER LYING ON THE PAVEMENT behind you and your tires may have been thin to begin with, although they shouldn't be. It never pays to travel with poor tires. Start with good ones, both on the front for safety's sake and on the rear to support your load. Tires with breaks, blisters, or bald spots should never be used except in the direst emergency. If you have such a tire, use it for a spare only, just to get you to the next station where you can get a new or used one in case of tire trouble, and be sure you have that jack and lug wrench so you can change 'em!—Maybe a few plugs and patches, too!
56. OBEY THE TRAFFIC REGULATIONS AND SIGNS! They're for your own safety and that of others. You were supposed to have had to read them and pass a test on them before getting your driver's license, but if you don't remember them, you better study them again before taking a trip. Observe the speed limits! Speed kills! In fact, observe everything while driving, not only in front of you, but behind you and on both sides. Nowadays you have to have eyes in the back of your head to drive safely‚ and that's what your rear view mirror is for. Keep one eye on it, glancing at it continually while driving. It can warn you of approaching danger sneaking up behind you. Seventy-five percent of all traffic accidents are rear-end collisions.
DON'T LET THE GUY BEHIND YOU HANG ON YOUR TAIL. If he's one of those nuts known as a tailgater‚ it's better to pull over and let him pass than have him hanging on your bumper. Keeping one eye to the rear is also a must when passing or changing lanes to be sure you're clear of all cars behind you. Don't change lanes until you are, and with plenty of room to spare. Don't take chances! Drive on the safe side!—Which is usually the slow righthand lane, for your heavily loaded vehicle full of passengers and baggage, or your big bus‚ truck, or camper. The slow righthand lane is the safest. Here you do not have to drive as fast as the rest of the traffic and can pull off immediately in case of trouble. Only watch out for incoming and exiting traffic on this lane especially on freeways, interstates, turnpikes, etc. And remember, it's always safer to yield to the other guy than to insist on your right of way. You may be right—but dead right! It's not smart to have to pay for your rights with an accident.
57. SPEED LIMITS: Around town, they're usually twenty-five or thirty in residential and business districts, except on main boulevards they may let you go thirty–five to forty-five. Just keep a sharp eye on those big speed limit signs on the curb or shoulder of the road, and stick to it or below it. NEVER EXCEED IT UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES‚ no matter how much of a hurry you're in, or you may get caught by a cop who'll make you a helluva lot later, and you may have to pay the fine by sitting it out in the cooler for a few days! I always had a rule with my own children and all of you in the early days that if you ever got a traffic ticket, you'd either pay it yourself or sit it out in jail to teach you a lesson. I flatly refused to bail you out!—And I think we ought to still stick to that rule now, and maybe you'd drive more prayerfully‚ safely, obediently, cautiously, and Godly!
ANYONE OF YOU WHO GETS A TRAFFIC TICKET SHOULD HAVE TO PAY THE PENALTY for breaking the law‚ and also write a full report for your Colony Shepherd or Supervisor, telling exactly how it happened.—And if you persistently prove you're a poor driver or even accident prone, you should be grounded either permanently or until you've proven you have learned your lesson, repented, and can drive safely. Maybe you should even have to read this letter through about ten times or memorise the parts you need or violated!
58. ON THE OPEN HIGHWAY WITH A LARGE AND/OR HEAVILY LOADED VEHICLE‚ THE SLOWER YOU CAN DRIVE, THE BETTER, as long as it's above the required minimum and keeps you out of the way of faster traffic. I've driven large buses, trucks, trailers, and heavy vehicles for years, and for hundreds of thousands of miles without an accident and with nothing more than a parking ticket since I was 16!—Thank the Lord!—And thanks to giving Him a lot of cooperation in driving very prayerfully, safely, and cautiously!
I'VE FOUND THE BEST SPEED ON THE HIGHWAY WITH A LARGE AND/OR HEAVILY LOADED VEHICLE IS ABOUT 50 TO 55—No more! With a not too heavily loaded passenger car with tires and everything in very good condition‚ you might push it to 60 if the law allows—but never more! Even at 60, a good driver can have trouble controlling his car in emergencies such as blowouts, sudden mechanical difficulty, or other unexpected unpleasant surprises, such as rounding a curve or topping a hill only to find a traffic jam, an accident‚ a stalled vehicle, a fallen boulder, a lost muffler, or something else unexpected in your path.
ALWAYS EXPECT THE UNEXPECTED and look for the worst and then you won't be sadly surprised. Always slow down when your vision is obstructed even a few hundred yards ahead. Don't expect the other guy to stop at that inter–section! He may even run the red light! Wait for him, especially if you see he's travelling fast! Make sure he stops before you proceed across the intersection. Watch prayerfully in both directions in crossing any intersection, and always watch that nut in front of you who may suddenly decide to turn right in front of you without any warning. Always expect him to do the worst and be prepared for it! Drive defensively. That's why 50 to 55 is top safe speed for your big or loaded vehicle!
59. REMEMBER, THAT EVEN AT THE SLOWER SPEED, YOU CANNOT CHANGE THE DIRECTION OF A VEHICLE SUDDENLY WITHOUT DANGEROUS CONSEQUENCES. especially on slick pavement or muddy or snowy or icy roads. A sudden swerve, even at a slow speed, even on a dry road can send you into a skid‚ slide, spin, or turnover and possible collision with another vehicle. According to God's laws of physics, this has to do with inertia and momentum, as well as centrifugal force in which anybody travelling at any speed has a tendency to continue in the same direction regardless of any other influences—such as turning the wheel or slamming on the brakes! And the possibility of your stopping or changing the direction of your vehicle decreases as you increase your speed, so that at high speed it is impossible to truly control your car, even in the case of the slightest difficulty!
GOD'S LAW OF PHYSICS will keep you hurtling right on in the same direction no matter what you try to do. Your trying to stop or turn at high speeds may only change the position of your vehicle, not its direction, and it will just keep on rolling, even end over end in the same direction. So, moral: Never drive over 50 or 55 with a large and/or heavily loaded vehicle, which is even more difficult to stop or turn because of its size or weight!
DRIVE SLOWLY‚ CAUTIOUSLY, READY TO SLOW TO A SAFE STOP OR TURN safely at a moment's notice. Plan ahead!—Even a block or two ahead! Watch the traffic and the lights far ahead of you and keep a long, safe distance between you and the car ahead, so you have plenty of time to stop in the case the light changes or the traffic stops. The faith and patience to drive slowly and plod along prayerfully, especially in city traffic with a heavy vehicle, is what makes for good, safe driving! Take your time! What's your hurry! Haste makes waste! Look before you leap‚ or you may be the quick, and the dead, both!
60. KEEP AN EYE ON THOSE GAUGES WHILE DRIVING!—They can show you the first sign of mechanical trouble, which you may be able to prevent or keep from making worse if you stop immediately or catch it in time. This is particularly true of your heat gauge, which may be a needle indicator showing the correct driving range between two points above which your engine is too hot. Or your heat gauge may be just a red light which goes on when your engine gets too hot. Whichever it is, keep a close watch on it, because an overheated engine can mean serious trouble! You may be only a little low on water or your fan belt a little loose so that your fan and water pump are not working properly, or your thermostat may be stuck shut, not allowing the water to circulate freely as it should. In any event, never drive or keep on driving with a hot or overheated engine! In severe cases, you can burn up the engine in less than five minutes or five miles, so that it's a total loss and your vehicle a wrecker case, and your road team stranded by the road far from it's destination!
61. BUT IF YOU NOTICE THAT HEAT GAUGE THE MOMENT IT STARTS OVERHEATING, you may be able to stop in time to save it by using your water jugs to cool it off. Pull over to the side of the road immediately and shut off your engine and wait for it to cool. Don't touch it or the radiator cap until it has quit boiling‚ and then with a heavy glove or rag placed over the cap, turn it only slightly, just enough to let off the steam. When it has quit blowing, turn the cap a little again very cautiously and be sure all the pressure is gone before you remove it. Otherwise, our may find you can't jump back quick enough to escape that geyser of boiling water and steam which can badly burn you‚ or at the very least badly soil your clothes. Be patient! Wait for it to cool off before your remove that radiator cap!
62. WHEN THE ENGINE IS COOLED DOWN TO NORMAL OPERATING TEMPERATURE, which you can check by turning your ignition key to "Accessory" position—usually to the left—and if no red light goes on, on your heat indicator or your needle has dropped to normal range, then try slowly pouring in water from your gallons jugs I told you to take with you. If you forgot, you may find water in a nearby ditch or stream, farmhouse or filling station, but you'll need a container to carry it in, which you may have to borrow if you failed to take one.
BEFORE STARTING YOUR ENGINE AGAIN, CHECK YOUR OIL and add some, if needed. Check your fan belt, as suggested in paragraph 42, and tighten or replace if necessary. Check the radiator‚ water pump‚ water hoses, and engine gaskets for water leaks. If the leak is not too bad, you may be able to limp in to the next service station by stopping to add water in the same manner every time you see the engine beginning to overheat again. A broken hose can often be taped temporarily, or a fan belt wired together or a leak plugged with a match to get you in at least to where you can get it fixed, but don't keep on driving with it that way!—Get it fixed now!
63. ANOTHER GAUGE TO WATCH IS THE OIL PRESSURE INDICATOR‚ which again may be a gauge which shows the actual pressure and indicates the normal level, or it may be just a red light that comes on when your oil pressure goes down to a dangerously low level. If so‚ stop at once and check your oil. If low, add oil and try again. If after adding oil and the oil pressure still does not come up, the needle doesn't rise, or the red light stays on, then your oil pump may have gone bad or an oil line gotten clogged‚ and you must not drive the car further than the next filling station to have it checked if the station's only a few blocks away. If it's miles to the next station, you'd better send for a mechanic if you don't know how to fix it yourself, because with low oil or little or no oil pressure you can burn up your engine in just a few miles so it's a total loss. Never drive your car when either the oil red light is on or the oil pressure down, or when the heat red light is on or you're out of water, or you can burn up the engine in only a few moments or miles. Whereas if you catch the trouble in time‚ you may be able to save it.
64. IT IS POSSIBLE TO DRIVE YOUR CAR WITH THE GENERATOR RED LIGHT ON OR DISCHARGING FOR A FEW MILES, as long as your battery holds out. But if it's at night and your lights are on, your battery won't last very far if the generator's not charging. Also, your generator light is the first indication of a broken fan belt, so if it goes on while driving, your should stop immediately to see if the fan belt is broken first of all, or the engine will immediately start over-heating because the fan and water pump will not be working either.
IF IT'S A BROKEN FAN BELT, DON'T DRIVE AT ALL! Get a new one! It's always a good idea to carry a spare fan belt with you for just such emergencies. Also, a spare water hose can be a big help. Even spare distributor parts‚ such as rotor, points, and condenser can be a great help by the side of the road if any of these should suddenly go bad. It's also always a good idea to carry extra cans of motor oil and transmission fluid in case you should run low miles from the nearest station. I've seen transmissions actually catch fire from being too low on fluid!
IT ALWAYS PAYS TO HAVE A FEW SPARE PARTS AND SPARE WATER‚ OIL, AND FLUID ALWAYS ON HAND in case of emergencies. "The righteous considereth his beast"! Have a heart and take care of it! Use it!—Don't abuse it! With good care, it'll last a lot longer!
65. THE LAST, BUT NOT THE LEAST OF ALL THE GAUGES TO KEEP YOUR EYE ON IS THE GASOLINE GAUGE, or the fuel or petrol indicator. Make sure you're not running so low on gas that you're not going to be able to make it to the next station. Of course, running out of gas is the least of all the troubles you can have. But if you're in the middle of the desert in the heat of a Summer day with a group a people fifty miles from the next station and 120° in the shade, and no shade and no water to drink, it could be very uncomfortable, both hitchhiking to the station and for those waiting for you, baking in an oven of an automobile—even dangerous! So there's no sense in ever running out of gas, for, as I've said before, it costs no more to keep the tank full than empty, and you should try to never let it run less than half full, or at the very least, a quarter full. You may have misjudged the distance to the next town‚ or it might be late and the station closed in a small town, so keep that gas tank full, and fill it every chance you get!
THIS WILL ALSO KEEP YOUR PASSENGERS HAPPY WITH FREQUENT REST STOPS and a chance to get out and relieve themselves‚ or just stretch and change their positions. For your own sake, as the driver, and for safety's sake to keep you rested, alert, and in good shape‚ you should stop for gas at least every two hours and get out and use the restroom, stretch, do a few calisthenics or jog around a bit to get some fresh air, wake you up, exercise your body and keep alive and alert for your driving. Just be sure the station attendant puts that gas in the car and you either watch him check your oil‚ water, tires, etc. to
make sure it's done correctly or do it yourself!—And as I said before, be sure to try to keep your people out of his hair, out of the driveways‚ off the backs of his customers and from monopolising the restroom, and out of his office.
NEVER LET ANYONE GET OUT OF YOUR VEHICLE UNTIL YOU'VE SHUT OFF THE ENGINE, and the tell them all to go immediately to the restroom whether they feel like it or not, while you're checking the car. When your car is finished, if you or your group isn't pull your car out of the way until you are. Never leave it standing at the pumps when it's done. This irritates the station man, because it's in the way of other customers and even discourages them from stopping. When all's ready, all aboard, check the state of your flock, pray‚ and roll again! To be continued!—God willing. Love, Mo.